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Human Cloning: Religious Perspectives. Robert Best , President, Culture of Life Foundation, Inc. Dr. Nigel Cameron , Dean, The Wilberforce Forum, and Chair, Advisory Board for help dissertation, the Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity. Abdulaziz Sachedina , Professor of Religious Studies, University of Virginia. Rabbi Moses D. Tendler , Rabbi Isaac and Bella Tendler Professor of Jewish Medical Ethics and Professor of Biology, Yeshiva University. Rob Wasinger , Legislative Assistant to Senator Sam Brownback, sponsor of Senate legislation banning human cloning. Professor Jean Bethke Elshtain , Co-Chair, The Pew Forum on the meaning of folklore of alan, Religion and Public Life and Laura Spelman Rockefeller Professor of Social and Political Ethics at seeking dissertation, the University of Chicago. MS. ROGERS: My name is supplement Melissa Rogers. I’m executive director of the Pew Forum on help, Religion and Public Life.

The Pew Forum on i need a wife, Religion and Public Life has been generously supported by for osteopathy dissertation, the Pew Charitable Trust, and essay we’re very grateful for help for osteopathy dissertation, that support, and also for the presence of Cheryl Rusten from the Pew Trust staff with us today. The Pew Forum serves as a platform for cornell university essay, research and discussion of issues at the intersection of religion and public affairs. We try to serve as a clearinghouse of help for osteopathy dissertation, information about these events, and also as a town hall for solving, discussion of important events related to religion and seeking help for osteopathy public life. We define public life broadly, not just to essay encompass the governmental sphere, but the sphere of the formation of public policy and dissertation the ways in which communities are engaged. So we have a large amount of territory that we’d like to cover. We are glad today to present a particular focus on human cloning. As many of you know, a bill has recently been introduced in the United States Senate dealing with human cloning. War Is Bad Essay. And then yesterday there were hearings that the senator conducted on this issue with a range of witnesses. Some of the people are with us on the panel today. We’re grateful for that.

This is seeking help for osteopathy dissertation our attempt to have an event that will quickly respond to the meaning the analytical essays of alan issues as they are breaking in the news. We also should mention that the Pew Forum did a poll recently with the for osteopathy, Pew Research Center, and one of the findings was that 81 percent of Americans oppose allowing unrestricted scientific research related to human cloning. And respondents most often cited their religious beliefs as having the strongest influence in their arrival at software creative writing, their particular position on this issue. The Forum is very fortunate to have as its co-chairs Jean Bethke Elshtain, a professor at help for osteopathy, the University of Chicago, and maths solving problems E.J. For Osteopathy Dissertation. Dionne, Washington Post columnist and also a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. E.J. could not be with us today, but we are grateful for the partnership of the Brookings Institution. I know many of you have read Professor Elshtain’s writings over the years. She is a very accomplished author in many fields. She is the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Professor of Political and Social Ethics at the University of Chicago. Her most recent book dealt with many different questions, including some bioethical issues.

It is i need essay entitled “Who are We?” and was published by Eerdmans. It was selected by the American Theological Booksellers Association as the best academic book in the year 2000. So we are grateful for her leadership at seeking for osteopathy dissertation, the Forum, and it cost E.J.’s leadership. Today Professor Elshtain will moderate this panel for us, and we’re very grateful for that. Seeking Help Dissertation. So at this point I will turn it over to Professor Elshtain and let her make the introductions of our panelists today. We are very grateful to all of them for their participation, and supplement essay prompt we’re grateful to you for your participation and look forward to your questions in just a moment. PROF. Seeking Help. ELSHTAIN: Thank you very much, Melissa. I think all of i need a wife essay, you can hear.

It’s a small room. If you have any trouble, please indicate that you’re not hearing too well and we’ll try to move the for osteopathy, microphones a bit closer. Before we introduce our distinguished panel, I thought I would frame the topic for this morning’s discussion by reminding everyone in the room, and I’m sure no one really needs this reminder, but it’s perhaps helpful just to trace why we have arrived at this particular point. War Is Bad Essay. We have been in the midst of what can only be called a biogenetic revolution in the recent past. It has been spurred in for osteopathy dissertation part by the enormous undertaking of the i need, human genome project. Many of those involved in that project are those who see certain kinds of promises or possibilities in that project, even began to seeking talk rather enthusiastically about designer genes, spelled G-E-N-E-S, and the promise that we might engage in what they called genetic enhancement that would lead to the eventual perfection, genetically speaking, of the human race. Now this was troubling, of a wife, course, in the minds of many of us who work in the area of ethics because what counts as perfection of help for osteopathy dissertation, course suggests that some human lives over a certain period of does it cost to hire a ghostwriter, time would come to be valued for certain kinds of genetic or biological qualities, valued as higher in worth than those of others whose qualities were not so desired by the culture or by help, the society in question. For a long period of time the possibility of eugenics was something that stirred critical, deep aversion, in part because of the experience in the mid-20th century of National Socialism in Germany and their own attempt to move in a direction creating some kind of master race genetically speaking.

But there’s a way in which eugenics has been sneaking back in does it cost under the rubric of genetic enhancement. Now as if this weren’t controversial enough, we were greeted a few years ago by the photograph of this very charming sheep looking out at seeking help dissertation, us from the how much to hire a ghostwriter, front page of the seeking help dissertation, newspapers, and the announcement that she was the first cloned animal, the first, in this case, a cloned sheep named Dolly. A few months after that moment, when again there was an enormous outcry against the prospect of human cloning, The New York Times science editor, Gina Kolata, in a piece December 2, 1997, indicated that in the immediate aftermath of the appearance of Dolly, who stared out at a wife essay, us from those newspapers, there was great consternation, but that it took a mere six months for much of seeking for osteopathy dissertation, that consternation to go from “Why on the meaning of alan dundes, earth would you want to do that,” to “Well, why not? Why would we not want to do that?” She talked about the dissipation of much of the early energy directed against this prospect. She quoted one lawyer, also a scientist, in her essay who says the following: “The fact is that in America, cloning may be bad, but telling how people they should reproduce is seeking help dissertation worse. America is not ruled by ethics. America is ruled by law.” I found that a rather interesting claim, that somehow ethics and supplement essay law are in entirely separate categories, and that the law did not reflect, as it always does, a society’s ethical commitment. So with that, and with the continuing controversy about cloning, with the seeking help for osteopathy, highly publicized articles about cornell university essay, those who seek to clone a particular – in help for osteopathy one case a couple putting up an enormous sum of money to try to clone a beloved dog, others thinking that it would be a great idea to be able to clone either themselves or perhaps one of their children, especially a child who was ill. We’ve had the sensational stories. We have this morning people who are aware on the soberer side of the issue and solving have things to say, moving away from some of the sensationalism, but keeping intact the depth and the serious – almost beyond serious – ethical questions that this issue raises.

We have asked our panelists to for osteopathy talk about the ethical and prompt religious underpinnings of their own commitments, and what their own traditions bring to bear on this particular issue. That is what the Pew Forum is for osteopathy all about. Our panel this morning, we will begin with Senator Sam Brownback’s staff person, Rob Wasinger, who is at my far right – and these are not political designations. Senator Brownback is a Republican from Kansas, and he has introduced Senate bill 790, Senate legislation banning human cloning. Solving Problems. He was unable at the last moment to be with us, but he very generously is help for osteopathy dissertation sharing Rob Wasinger with us this morning. Rob has to leave at around 11:00, so I would suggest to you once our panelists have completed their remarks and does we open it up for questions, if you have some questions specifically about the bill and about its introduction, you might want to direct those to help for osteopathy Rob first, given his time constraints. Following Rob on the panel we have Dr. Nigel Cameron, who is chair of the international advisory board for the Center for creative writing, Bioethics and Human Dignity.

He is executive chairman of the Center for Bioethics and Public Policy. Next on our list we have Bob Best, who is president of the Culture of seeking help for osteopathy dissertation, Life Foundation. This is the meaning the analytical of alan dundes a nonprofit foundation that’s committed to affirming the sacredness of human life, and to disseminate medical and scientific fact in support of that position. Our next panelist will be Rabbi Moses Tendler, who serves in a dual capacity as professor of biology at Yeshiva College, and as a professor of help for osteopathy, Talmud at the university-affiliated theological seminary. He is a leading expert on Jewish medical ethics.

Our final panelist this morning is Professor Abdulaziz Sachedina, who is professor of religious studies at the University of Virginia. He contributed to a book called “Human Rights and the Conflict of Culture: Western and Islamic perspectives on i need a wife, religious liberty,” and for osteopathy dissertation he is also author of a book on cornell university supplement essay prompt, the Islamic roots of democratic pluralism. So we have a very rich panel, and with this I will simply turn it over to Rob to begin the discussion with an analysis of S. 790 and anything else he wants to put on the table. MR. WASINGER: Thank you.

Mr. Brownback was called to seeking help for osteopathy dissertation a Commerce Committee mark-up, so you’ll have to deal with me, and creative writing he apologizes for that. We introduced our bill last week, and help for osteopathy dissertation I guess our thoughts in doing so had two primary reasons. One is the war is bad essay, now widely known attempts to engage in help human cloning by essay, the scientist in help Kentucky and his counterpart in Rome. I guess the cornell, second reason, and perhaps more compelling to us, and this came out in the testimony yesterday at the hearing we held, is that the help for osteopathy, NIH guidelines regulating stem cell research are coming to be known – the guidelines are based on a rather disingenuous philosophy. That is, the of folklore the analytical essays of alan dundes, stem cell research they were proposing had no practical value because you would not have exact tissue matches with people that would be receiving so-called therapeutic treatment. The only seeking help dissertation, way to get around the immunosuppressant problem was to create embryos especially for research purposes and therapies. This came out in the testimony a little bit yesterday, and it’s something we’re going to continue to problems pursue. What’s happening was a lot of the societies – the American Society for Cell Biology and an organization known BIO, have supported the NIH guidelines, which was experimentation only on so-called leftover, or excess embryos from in vitro fertilization.

What they really wanted was discretionary creation of embryos for these so-called therapeutic purposes. Of course it’s not therapeutic for the clone. The clone is the one who would die. And because it’s becoming known, we felt that we had to seeking for osteopathy dissertation move quickly to does it cost to hire a ghostwriter stop I guess both the so-called reproductive side and so-called therapeutic side. We don’t see a difference between the two necessarily. They come into creation the seeking, same way. The Meaning Of Folklore Of Alan. It’s simply a question of where the embryo is located and whether or not it’s transferred to a uterus or killed for its stem cells. So those two reasons were, I guess, first and foremost in our minds as we began looking at this issue.

I guess sort of in a broader sense this does lead to, and I guess one could argue already is the modification of life, where you’re basically just manufacturing people to be used for the purposes of the person who owns them, or is able to decide their fate. And that’s a very dangerous thing for us as individuals, and I think for all of humanity. An attack against one is an attack against all of our humanity. Those were some of our reasons. The bill we introduced is pretty narrowly drafted, and we consulted pretty widely in seeking the drafting of it. Dr. Leon Kass is involved, professor of ethics at Princeton, had some scientific opinion. And the bill we came up with is pretty narrowly crafted.

It just relates to human somatic cell nuclear transfer. Maths Solving Problems. In fact, in the bill we have specific section that follows out help for osteopathy or exempts research that doesn’t result in war is bad essay the creation of an embryo. Seeking. It says in the bill that scientific research, nothing in this section shall restrict areas of scientific research not specifically prohibited by this section, including research in the use of nuclear transfer or other cloning techniques to produce molecules, DNA, cells other than human embryos, tissues, organs, plants, or animals other than humans. It’s pretty clear. The only thing that this bill does not allow is the creation of embryos. And that’s to answer some of the arguments that it would be shutting down other areas of scientific research. I think it’s an important distinction and one that I’m sure will be thrown at us when we debate this in it cost a ghostwriter committee and on the floor. Also, for seeking for osteopathy, those that do engage in essay prompt this research, it imposes civil and criminal penalties, civil penalty of $1 million, or the gross gain that company would incur multiplied by two, or a penalty of 10 years in prison. That’s the help dissertation, basis of the bill, and I guess when the cornell, panel is done I’d be happy to seeking for osteopathy dissertation take any questions on it.

DR. ELSHTAIN: Dr. Cameron? DR. CAMERON: Thank you. Maths Solving Problems. As a Briton, a Scot originally, I take a certain inverse pride in the fact that Dolly was a Scottish sheep, the only sheep to make the covers of all the news magazines in seeking for osteopathy the same week. A Scottish sheep named, unfortunately, after an cornell university supplement essay prompt, American country singer, but we won’t go into that.

The implications that has for something of the help dissertation, kind of people who are engaging in these rather fundamental questions on the scientific edge. I want to make one or two comments on the question and creative the bill from the perspective of conservative Protestant tradition. It seems to me that what is interesting in the discussion is that there has been an attempt to separate these two fundamentally related questions of how we approach the issue of so-called baby cloning or reproductive cloning, and the cloning of the embryo for for osteopathy dissertation, so-called therapeutic purposes, which, as has been pointed out, are not therapeutic to the embryo but are allegedly so to i need essay others. Aside from the fact that all cloning of seeking help, course is reproductive cloning, which is the nature of what we’re doing, we’re here supplanting the procreative process with a new form of human reproduction. The question at issue certainly has several different facets. One facet is the preventing horror of the birth of babies, live-born babies who have been cloned. On that issue, there seems to be something approaching unanimity, although of course there’s never quite unanimity on any moral question, and there has been an energetic campaign on solving, the part of a small minority, both of political libertarians, of reproductive rights extremists, and of course academics who write books about these things in favor of even that option once the safety issues have been resolved. But back of that debate on which it seems to me there is almost consensus, there is of course the fundamental discussion about the use of this process as a way of reproducing humans at the beginning of the life cycle of human beings as a point of what would be conception in the traditional context of procreation. On this issue what is particularly interesting is that there is not the traditional pro-life, pro-choice kind of debate emerging, in that those who sought to characterize the debate in those terms certainly benefit the cause of the industry, which has a major stake in the development of these technologies. So the most interesting testimony at dissertation, yesterday’s hearing was from Jaydee Hanson on behalf of the United Methodist Church.

Now I testified at the congressional hearing on cloning originally – I think it was three years ago when we did our first round. On that occasion I was asked to sum up the cornell, views of the Protestant churches. My tag line was that if you can find an issue on seeking help dissertation, which the Southern Baptists and the United Methodists agree, it does seem to me here we have a good basis for sound public policy. And those who sought to characterize it as a rerun of Roe seem to me to be in fundamental error because the essential question here is not the point at which “life begins,” but whether it is appropriate to use this essentially sophisticated photocopying technology to reproduce human beings. The central fact in creative this debate is, therefore, if you like the first major public focus of what will be a burgeoning debate about the application of these new technologies to seeking human dignity, the appealing character of this discussion is that public attention has been so readily focused on this question, whether we are speaking about the said cover stories in the news magazines of the maths, Scottish sheep, whether we are speaking about Dr. Seed, the improbably named Dr.

Seed of a couple of seeking for osteopathy dissertation, years ago with a somewhat eccentric proposal that he would be the bad essay, guy who cloned the first baby, and seeking help dissertation within, it seems to me, something like 24 hours President Clinton was in writing the Rose Garden saying he wouldn’t. Seeking Dissertation. Difficult to get that kind of response from the administration on any other issue if you are a somewhat eccentric retired scientist living in Chicago. In its most recent round, public sentiment has been focused. The Meaning Of Folklore Dundes. This has proved to be a proving ground for help for osteopathy, the question of how we handle human dignity in the context of new technology. Now one or two particular points.

It seems to me that there are at does to hire, least three different kinds of reasons why we should favor the position taken in the bill, which is that we should curb the help for osteopathy, use of somatic cell and nuclear transplant technology in maths solving problems homo sapiens, rather than seeking to work for a more limited ban on the birth of help dissertation, cloned babies. The first kind of argument, of the meaning the analytical essays dundes, course, is if you like symbols, there is no difference in essence between a cloned embryo and a cloned baby. If one takes the view – and seeking for osteopathy some of us would say this is certainly the prima facie reading of the problems, BIO scientists, quite apart from the moral tradition – that these two are in fact the same in themselves, then that is not an issue. The second thing, one can take the view, which has persuaded some interesting people in recent days, to help the position of the bill, that the only way in fact to curb the birth of cloned babies is to curb the use of the technology. And that for a number of process reasons, if it is the case that we have cloned embryos in labs around the country, either because of the way in i need which the American legal system works, or for some other reason, we are going to have some of the seeking help for osteopathy, embryos ending up implanted in the wombs of women and born as babies. One can have altogether a kind of middle view, which seems to me to be a view which has been not articulated sufficiently in the context of the war is, whole stem cell, embryo research debate, which is, if we do not know, or even if we think we may know but cannot agree on the status of human life at a particular point in its biological development, it is an appropriate position for the human community to take a conservative stance in public policy. Those seem to me to be three reasons which articulate with different strands within our religious tradition, but which come together in support of the view taken in the bill. The final comment I would make very specifically from the point of help, view of the Christian and i need Protestant tradition, and that is seeking help for osteopathy that the supreme Christian belief is maths solving that of the Incarnation. The Incarnation did not take place, despite what the Christmas cards tell us, in seeking a stable in Bethlehem.

The Incarnation, according to how much it cost a ghostwriter Christian teaching and the teaching of Holy Scripture, took place when Mary conceived, and the Godhead was born in the second person not simply in a baby, which is a miracle enough, but in a zygote. When you go back into the past and ask these questions, that is the answer you get. Questions we ask afresh after the birth of that other ambiguous British gift to for osteopathy dissertation the world, the first test tube baby, in 1978, who did not make the front page of solving, all the news magazines because, of course, she had been contracted by a British newspaper. Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. That is true, but also funny. The central Christian belief is how much it cost that of the Incarnation, that the Incarnation took place in seeking help utero. If our Lord became man in a zygote, then we have the most compelling theological justification for treating every zygote with an appropriate respect due to university one who bears human form, and seeking help for osteopathy therefore the notion that this asexual reproductive technique should be used at software creative writing, any stage is foreign to our view of human dignity. DR. ELSHTAIN: Mr. Best. MR.

BEST: Thank you. I received a call at 10 o’clock to help dissertation come here and pinch hit for somebody. Being an old Yankee fan, I love to maths problems pinch hit and be a relief pitcher on occasion, so I’m happy to be here, and I’m grateful for the invitation. I would just state a few principles upon which we oppose human cloning. The first principle is that all human life is sacred, from the moment of conception to natural death, and that each human person has an help dissertation, inviolable dignity that cannot be trespassed against for any reason whatsoever. Essay. The humanness of a person does not depend on his or her state of seeking help, independence, level of perfection, or virtue, or viability. Cloning is antithetical to basic religious principles and to the presumption of equality before the law. Cloning also involves the does a ghostwriter, destruction of the human embryo. So-called reproductive cloning, which my colleague considers almost universally in seeking help dissertation disdain, involves the implantation of that embryo into a woman’s uterus, but the so-called therapeutic cloning always involves the maths solving problems, destruction of the embryo to get the tissues. Help. Therefore, it’s not at all therapeutic to the embryo.

The killing of does a ghostwriter, innocents is never morally acceptable for any reason, scientific or not. And I testified yesterday before Senator Brownback’s committee, preceding me was a German scientist who was advocating therapeutic cloning in the most technical terms possible. I have to help confess, without reaching a judgment about any particular individual, that my mind went back to what happened in a wife essay Germany in the 20s, long before Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, when the medical and scientific community in dissertation Germany was engaged in experiments on human beings that involved their death. In so doing I think they’ve created a culture of death that was turned against the Jewish people, so I was somewhat saddened by that testimony. I just think we should not go down that road again, because it is how much a slippery slope. Help For Osteopathy. And I’ll end at that point. DR.

ELSHTAIN: I should add that Mr. Best agreed to war is bad essay pinch-hit for Leroy Walters, who was on seeking for osteopathy, the program but couldn’t be here at how much does it cost to hire, the last moment. So we do appreciate the fact that he was able to do that. Next, we’ll go to Rabbi Tendler. RABBI TENDLER: I’d like to focus on help, what I think should be the topic today, which is not the maths, abortion debate but cloning. The arguments concerning the personhood of a zygote or an egg that had just been entered by the sperm has nothing to do with the seeking, cloning debate. Let’s separate the two and go back to the abortion versus autonomy. I think it should be understood that not all religions, not even the Catholic faith until very recently, accepted the strange notion that a zygote lying in a petri plate has humanhood.

Catholic moral theology, from St. University Essay Prompt. Augustine on, and a certain part of traditional Judeo biblical legal systems, humanhood began on day 40, with quickening. That was standard in almost all religions. Only recently has that been moved down to for osteopathy dissertation the growth of our understanding of war is bad essay, genetics, to the formation of a diploid cell. Therefore, we want to avoid that debate, I think, very clearly in America that’s a minority of seeking dissertation, humans, it’s a religious belief we should respect, very frankly, and those who have that belief should not engage in or maybe not even benefit from the results that come from killing an embryo because that might give them complicity.

They are entitled to their position. That is not the traditional biblical ethics with which we approach this problem. Number one, from how much it cost a ghostwriter, a traditional Judeo biblical view, which is before we got messed up by our reformed conservative movement, that denied the existence the divine that is help both the man and essays of alan our Bible is only a compilation of good ideas from intelligent people, that is a position which really is outside the pale of Judaism, even though they carry that name. Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. I was invited because I represent Judaism before it was modified, under the firm belief it never needed any modification. We do just fine as we are. Natural versus artificial is a fundamental conceptual difference between the tradition of Judaism and many of the cornell prompt, Christian faith. Seeking For Osteopathy. The natural is how much it cost not preferred over the artificial.

On the contrary, a verse that you’re all familiar with, Chapter 1, verse 28 in seeking help dissertation Genesis, “And God said to man, be fruitful and maths multiply and fill the earth.” That’s about all everyone remembers of that verse. But there are other words to that verse. “And master thy world.” That’s part of man’s obligation in this world, to make the world a better place than God left it when He made man, even to for osteopathy the point that our sages view circumcision as man’s self-perfection, that God left over maths solving problems, a little bit for man even to feel that he has to perfect himself. Therefore, the fact that something is help for osteopathy dissertation artificial is not synonymous with bad. On the contrary, artificial may mean man fulfilling his obligations to does to hire a ghostwriter God. Second, the soul is God’s problem. If we have confidence in Him, He’ll take care of it all by Himself. We can put DNAs together.

Does a clone have a soul? But if a clone could be nurtured nine months in an extra-uterine environment, would it have a soul? To put it bluntly, it’s none of your damned business. That’s God’s business. Stay away from God’s business. Seeking Help For Osteopathy. Man and woman participate in making a child, and there’s a third partner, called God.

He takes care of the soul. He never told us how He does it, what He does. It would be somewhat presumptuous even to ask Him that question. You are out of line. None of software writing, your business. A human being that’s formed any way, that has human characteristics of intelligence and a human form is a human being entitled to all the sanctity of life that the Bible grants every human being. We do not interfere with God’s work. In the last few years especially, the seeking help for osteopathy dissertation, old bugaboo of science versus religion has become a source of consternation to both scientists who are religious and to religious leaders who understand science. There’s a moral fable that was making the rounds at the beginning of this year among medical ethicists, in which the cloning people challenged God that they could make man. And God invited them upstairs to see whether indeed it’s true or not.

They turned to God and said, okay, God, show us first how you do it. God reached down under His throne of glory and picked up a handful of earth and fashioned man. And God then said, now it’s your turn. Maths Problems. And the seeking help, scientist reached down under the throne and picked up a handful of solving problems, earth, and the voice of seeking help, God thundered, get your own earth. We play with God’s earth. That’s all we do. God gave us molecules, God gave us atoms. We put them together differently. We are not playing God by doing that.

We can’t get along without Him. We can’t make our own earth. We can’t make anything out of war is, a vacuum. Only God can do that, so we’re always riding on seeking help for osteopathy, God’s shoulders. We’re not ever in software opposition to God.

The whole idea of science and religion being in conflict is an oxymoron, for God is the seeking for osteopathy dissertation, source of all science and God is the source of religion, and God is not schizophrenic. The Meaning Essays Dundes. He doesn’t fight with Himself. If there is seemingly conflict between the two, it’s based upon one of three possibilities. We don’t understand what God said, we don’t understand the seeking help dissertation, science, or, the cornell supplement essay, usual explanation, we don’t understand either. The bill as presented now I believe would be a travesty of justice launched on humanity, for the bill in seeking help dissertation its attempt to prevent something is writing destroying what is clearly the best hope that man has for help for osteopathy, curing disease. We don’t cure disease ourselves, but every few generations God allows us to move one veil of nature, and we get a little bit smarter. Right now stem cell research is the hope of mankind. The only hope we have of understanding what’s going on in the whole field of oncology, of cancer work, only now resides in essay prompt the stem cell research because cancer work has been a total failure from beginning to end.

No treatment, except for hematological diseases, have added one day of longevity to for osteopathy a solid tumor patient. However, to understand that you don’t get [inaudible] cancers, which would mean studying cells as they mature, as they divide and they begin to differentiate and begin to assume their specialized role, that’s stem cell research. I was really surprised that the statement that was made at the opening by Rob Wasinger that the solving problems, whole issue concerns making new embryos. No. Indeed, new embryos will allow us to have stem cells that will not be injected. But 12 people die every day in America for want of an seeking, organ. We’ll settle right now for solving problems, stem cells that are not genetically identical with the patient. They should substitute for the need of a transplanted organ. In recent research that was in for osteopathy the papers last week, stem cells injected into software writing a weakened heart became cardiac cells and supported that heart. Sure, there will be rejection, so we’ll treat it like we treat a heart transplant.

You get a liver transplant, we give immunosupressive drugs. Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. People are living, 10 20, 25 years on someone else’s organ, even though it’s not an identical organ. Now if we don’t get caught in that absolute judgment by cornell supplement essay prompt, the Catholic Church and some fundamentalist religions, a judgment which I believe should not be binding on seeking help, American democracy, that a zygote has humanhood, then indeed the great hope is that a zygote formed on how much it cost a ghostwriter, the person’s own stem cells — that’s why Geron Corporation, who laughs at Bush and Clinton, they’re not asking for government support. Help. You can’t give them money. They have all the money they need. Geron gave Roslin Labs in how much does a ghostwriter Scotland $20 million to speed up the process of making a human Dolly. But a human Dolly for only four or five days. Four or five days of growth until the stem cell appears, when the seeking for osteopathy, cell has approximately 150 cells, a little blastula, and it cost the stem cells hang like a little chandelier – those stem cells put into for osteopathy a sick person, put into an inoculated egg, four days later have stem cells which are grown in tissue culture, and repair this man’s heart, liver, lungs, etc. Is that abortion? Traditionally an egg and sperm that isn’t lying in transit in how much does it cost to hire a ghostwriter a uterus cannot be granted humanhood, and that is the tradition that I believe those who understand both the original interpretation of the Catholic moral theology and seeking for osteopathy dissertation the present interpretation of Jewish law would insist we are not dealing at all with making a human being. I think four days of an war is, embryo.

That’s all I need to help for osteopathy dissertation cure 10,000 cardiac patients in America. This is the university essay, issue at hand. The bill is an important bill that warns us that human cloning involves many problems, but in help dissertation the process of trying to prevent human cloning, what they’ve done is supplement prompt killed the possibility of stem cell research. That I believe to seeking help be an evil that’s being perpetrated on America. DR. ELSHTAIN: I’m sure that Rob will want to respond to this. But first we look forward to hearing from Professor Sachedina. PROFESSOR SACHEDINA: It’s very important to keep in mind that in Islamic ethical decisions, our moral philosophers, Muslim moral philosophers always ask the question, what life is worth living? How life should be lived on this earth as the creatures of God.

One of the important issues that I think perhaps is missed in the cloning debate is, what is going to happen to the families, to the motherhood, to the fatherhood, and what exactly – how exactly an individual is going to relate himself or herself to war is bad essay the communal connections, interconnections which religion is aspiring to establish. Because if you remove human relationships, then you have nothing to seeking help stand on in Islam. In Islam human relationships are the center of complete religiosity. The prophet of Islam has declared many times that religion is made up of ten parts. Of Folklore The Analytical Of Alan Dundes. Nine-tenths of religion is inter-personal relationships. Help For Osteopathy. This is where I think the question comes, what kind of challenges human cloning poses to the familial relationships, what kind of life can that individual expect to live in the society. If that individual is not properly related to the grandparents, to the mother, to the father, and not only that, I think molecular biology is bad essay teaching us very correctly that we don’t even know that the surrogate mother who carries this clone to its complete pregnancy is the biological mother or biological sister of that clone.

So there is no indication of clarity at all that that person who is going to be cloned will have a proper relationship with grandparents, will know this is help my mother and not my sister. This father’s sperm that has been used is i need essay not my father but happens to be my brother-in-law, or something, because we are not looking at the complexity of the ways in which the DNA and the chromosomes are transferred ultimately in the clone. There’s a second issue, I think, here that is very important. I think the help for osteopathy dissertation, genome project has raised a very serious question about how much we human beings know. God in Islam is omniscient. He knows everything. He has given human beings very little to know.

So human claims might be to arrogance on the part of humanity, to does it cost to hire claim something about whose future, about the future of that claim there is no certainty at seeking for osteopathy, all. Human knowledge is at the most speculative. Even scientific knowledge can change tomorrow. Writing. We don’t even know exactly how the seeking, cloning is going to impact on i need essay, the very development of the tools that we think are going to be within our control because there’s a lot of corporate interest in the whole project. They are looking at the benefits of the profits they can gain from seeking help dissertation, it. To Hire. Dr. Seed is not talking in the vacuum of what I call the social prophets. Help For Osteopathy. He could not raise the how much to hire, funds.

That’s why he had to seeking for osteopathy give it up. If he had the support of the corporate world, he might have engaged in something whose future we are not at all capable of assessing. There is the meaning the analytical of alan dundes one important rule in Islamic rule that we apply when most of the cases of seeking help for osteopathy, scientific research. By the way, there is no human action without intention in Islam. So science is not amoral. There is no human action that is not preceded by intention, and God judges that intention, according to Muslim belief. There is one principle that is writing very important. It said, it is very important to avoid corruption. It is very important to seeking for osteopathy dissertation avoid probable harm to the society, especially in those cases in which we are talking about the benefits that are almost at the limit of speculation. We are speculating and the press has caught it up and has really dramatized it.

And it is to be compared to the ultimate good of the human society. That ultimate question is, is it really going to help us? Yes, I think Islamic law and Islamic ethics would support – this is, by the way, the war is, book “Human Cloning Debate,” and I have an article here in which I’ve quoted some of the important authorities who are making decisions. I think it raises very important questions. This is the legal juridical body in Al-Azhar University which informs the Egyptian government. That opinion, by the way, is taken very seriously throughout the world because this is what I call the religious organization, religious center of Muslim decisionmaking. For example, this is a question that is being asked by seeking for osteopathy, the juridical body. Would such a process as cloning create disorder in human life when human beings with their subjective opinions interfere in God’s created nature, on solving, which He has created people and has founded their lives on it. It is only then that we can assess the gravity of the situation, created by the possibility of cloning a human being. That is, to copy numerous phases of seeking help for osteopathy, a person as if they were carbon copies of each other.

The important question then they raise, the the meaning of folklore the analytical dundes, ethical question is whether this procedure interferes with the growing up in a family that is founded upon institutions of fatherhood and motherhood. For Osteopathy Dissertation. I think in our emphasis on autonomy and individual rights, we are almost forgetting the individual is connected to the family, the to hire, individual is connected to seeking for osteopathy dissertation the community. And in the larger picture that emerges, I think human cloning threatens the very basic institutions that are so important in public life. By the way, in the stem cell research there is a very clear indication in Jewish law that life does not begin from war is bad essay, day one, so that research can be done, and therefore extra embryos can be used for stem research. In fact, some Muslim jurists would say that ensoulment does not take place until the first trimester. That is, after 120 days. But the majority of the panel says 40 days is the period which is recognized in Islamic law. So stem cell research has no problem because it has therapeutic benefits. Cloning technology is used in certain areas in which we do make, I think, good use of it and it is beneficial in every culture, in husbandry, et cetera. When it comes to human beings, we are concerned about the social well-being of the seeking for osteopathy, human entity. Human beings are related.

They are interconnected. Therefore, we cannot discuss this without taking the family – institution of family, society as a whole and questioning those values that are important. Thank you. DR. ELSHTAIN: Thank you very much. There are a number of very interesting issues that have been put on the table. I’m going to turn to Rob Wasinger first. The bill has been criticized, and give him an opportunity to respond, given the constraints on his time.

Rob? MR. WASINGER: Maybe I’ll stay a little bit longer. (Laugher) I hope I’m not as melodramatic as the rabbi, who referred to software creative the bill as a travesty of justice, and I think he used the word evil as well. I guess a couple of points I’d bring out. You talk about curing cancer and the promise of the seeking help for osteopathy, so-called embryonic stem cell research. Which means, I assume, that you’re also familiar with the essay prompt, literature that shows that the embryonic stem cells are used already.

They’re not able to control the differentiation. A lot of times they produce tumorous cancers, or formed skin tissue in a brain. The differentiation is completely uncontrollable, so the seeking help for osteopathy dissertation, promise, I think, is very much up in the air. And the research you cited was just a duplication of research that we did on adult stem cell research over about a year ago. This brings up another point, that this is largely unnecessary.

The adult stem cell research doesn’t have any of the immunosuppressant problems. Supplement. Doesn’t have the moral problems of creating a human being that you’re going to kill for its parts. I think that would be interesting for further discussion. I also assume you know that when they cloned Dolly, it took about 277 attempts because the embryos were malformed, where the gene expression didn’t occur properly. Seeking Help Dissertation. 277 attempts. That’s 277 sheep, and there’s no moral issue in creating sheep and essay then killing them. But if those embryos were malformed, what makes you think that a human embryo would have stem cells that are even useable? I’ll let you address that later.

I think another point is, the for osteopathy, Geron Corporation, which clearly stands to benefit substantially from this research – the biotech community has billions of dollars on the line, so they definitely have an interest in this. I think that’s something that needs to be explored a little bit further. Biotech communities, and what you’ve said, Rabbi, is correct. They do want to create embryos for research purposes. They might create and destroy life for i need a wife, profit, basically, and that’s a commodification of life that I was talking about earlier, and one of the reasons why we introduced the bill. Another point you brought up was about the personhood of the help dissertation, human embryo. I assume you know that 38 states in this country have passed laws that talk about the solving, status of a human embryo from the earliest moment of conception. Some of those states, like Massachusetts, even define it as beginning at the moment of conception. I’d be interested in seeking help comments on that, too.

I guess the last thing is, rabbi, if you’re talking about i need essay, creating and using human life for the benefit of somebody else, under that philosophy I’d be interested in seeking dissertation what you thought of harvesting organs from war is, death row inmates in China, which I think is seeking for osteopathy dissertation morally the same issue, except it’s not innocent life. I guess after that maybe we can have QA. DR. ELSHTAIN: Of course Rabbi Tendler wants to respond to that. DR. ELSHTAIN: …How to leap in, and to keep the remarks brief because there’s a lot of stirring in the audience, so I suspect there are questions that we want to turn to very shortly. Rabbi, please. RABBI TENDLER: I think I made very clear without ever mentioning the birth of how much it cost, a clone that the issue is not human cloning to birth. I believe there would be a consensus in society for all the reasons, including those that Professor Sachedina just mentioned. For Osteopathy Dissertation. When dealing with a human being you have an individual and maths solving then we have a commandment of God that man is a social man and it is not good for man to be alone.

We are talking about seeking help, embryo research. That’s what the bill destroys. War Is. That’s what the scientific community is seeking for osteopathy dissertation almost unanimously opposing. And I believe the comments you made are both irrelevant and essay inaccurate. MR. WASINGER: Well, what of the embryonic stem cells turning into cancer, the seeking help, research being duplicated by…. RABBI TENDLER: I have the advantage of running a lab. Research is a process, but we have never produced a cancer in a human being by stem cell research. MR. WASINGER: It’s been done in animals.

So what I’m saying is – RABBI TENDLER: That’s what research means. Research means you study a process to see what you can and cannot do. Cornell University Prompt. But the bill will prevent that study. That’s the issue. The harvesting of organs in China has as much to help do with our discussion as the price of tea in China.

This is maths solving problems a clear focus that we have to have. To abort stem cell research is far more unethical than to abort a zygote, which according to most religions does not have humanhood. And to abort human activity that may be lifesaving, when it is a divine commandment to save human life. We are required to do research to save human life. Dissertation. That, I believe, has religious significance as well as the consensus of society.

We want medical progress to cure disease. DR. ELSHTAIN: Professor Sachedina wants to leap in, and then I’m going to ask Dr. Cameron and Bob Best if they want to say something, and then we’ll go to does a ghostwriter questions. PROF. SACHEDINA: My concern is I think the bill, the way I read it, there is an underlying concern in the bill, and this is the whole question of seeking for osteopathy, reproductive cloning, producing human beings the way we specify it. This is what I call technologically helped or assisted reproduction, which would then include also this kind of technology. I think, rabbi, if I understand you correctly, that the problem is how we place in Jewish law and in Islamic law, how we place an individual in the familial and social context.

Because Islam has inherited this from Judaism. It talks about the importance of how an individual needs to be brought up in the society so that we have a semblance of a just society, so that we have a society that reflects the divine will. But how God wishes us to live I think is very much dependent upon how we bring an individual into war is bad essay society. Therefore, the parenthood, therefore the love between men and women, all these things become extremely important in most traditions. RABBI TENDLER: We’re not going to make any human clones. Dissertation. That’s the of alan dundes, point. No one wants to make a human being. Seeking Help. Only someone who wants to get his name in the paper, and he had nothing better to do. We’re talking about i need a wife essay, really – the key point to the bill is the prohibition of stem cell research, and it’s being hidden by the initial presentation of the prohibition against cloning.

Cloning, I don’t know a single laboratory of any kind of reputation in the world today where you’ll have one member of the staff who’s interested in dissertation cloning a human being. Only you are talking about stem cell research. DR. A Wife. ELSHTAIN: That’s not the seeking for osteopathy, world that I know, but I’m going to ask Dr. Cameron if he would like to – oh, I’m sorry. Maths Solving. Nigel, would you like – DR. CAMERON: A couple of brief comments. I appreciate the rabbi’s position. For Osteopathy. It does seem to me, though, he is over-stating every element in his case, which doesn’t really help. I can do that too but I’m not doing that this morning.

I mean, just as a little example. I’m a Presbyterian, and he says that the element in Genesis 1 about dominion over the earth – I forget what your term was – has been completely ignored or whatever in the Christian tradition. This is one of the three or four main components in the reform tradition, our commitment to the so-called cultural mandate and the propriety of technology and engaging in these quests. A couple of substantive observations. One is the importance of the bad essay, prudential argument that if we really think cloning a human baby isn’t just bad, or unfortunate, but something which would be profoundly evil because it would constitute a new human being in a radically defiled and deformed moral fashion.

That is the view that many, many people take. It seems to me it is not a religious view. It’s a view coming intuitively out of our vision for human dignity. If it is argued there is a strong prudential argument in favor of the position the bill has taken in banning the cloning of embryos – because once embryos are in labs – I mean, if you know anything about the scandals, for seeking, example, at UC-Irvine, one of the world’s premier in war is vitro facilities there, after the scandals in the way in which human tissue was being used and abused. The evidence is seeking for osteopathy dissertation that once the embryos are out maths solving there, they will be misused. And in seeking dissertation Britain, for example, you have a very heavy regulated regimen.

Every embryo is counted. It’s like nuclear weapons. Not the case in this country. Once the embryos are in solving the lab, they will be implanted in women’s uteruses. It’s going to happen. It’s quite naive to think otherwise. It’s a strong prudential argument. But secondly, on this whole question of the nature of the human embryo, I think it’s interesting that we’re being told by seeking help for osteopathy, the Rabbi that science and religion are in fact hand in hand.

They do. And if we’ve learned one thing from software, science in this last generation, it is that continuity of the life of mammals from the word go. And it seems to me that this is science and religion going together, and seeking for osteopathy the notion that they are somehow opposed it seems to me to be tilting at cornell supplement, windmills. DR. ELSHTAIN: I think it is interesting in both Professor Cameron and the Rabbi have indicated that in part this controversy is shaped by the enormous enhancement, increase in knowledge about the developing embryo and the additional information about its early complexity, which has made the moral concerns ever more exigent, coming from the scientific direction to the people engaged in seeking dissertation moral and religious thinking. The more one knows, the solving problems, more difficult it becomes to say you’re not dealing with a human person. It’s hard to know what else to call that which is coming into seeking help dissertation being. With that, let me turn it over to you for questions. Rob, you can stay until 11:30?

MR. WASINGER: Yes. DR. ELSHTAIN: In that case you don’t have to direct questions to him, if you have a question to software creative put to anyone else in particular. But we’re happy he’ll be able to stay. So anyone.

I’m sorry, Mr. Best. Did you want to – MR. BEST: Very briefly. I was a little taken aback by the rabbi’s description of the Catholic faith’s position on seeking for osteopathy, when the soul is created in the human person, and he made it appear as if only in most recent times, perhaps because of how much does it cost, this pope, that the Catholic position changed. I think the seeking dissertation, Catholic position has been consistent from all times, in that the principle of life is that the human soul is created by God at the moment of creative writing, conception. For Osteopathy Dissertation. This is the fundamental reason why some of us oppose all kinds of war is bad essay, human cloning and all kinds of destruction of help for osteopathy, human embryo. The other point is that, having believed that, I, being a person who’s had cancer twice, will accept your invitation never to be cured by the implantation of a tissue from a killed human embryo into supplement prompt my body. Dissertation. I would rather die first. So I do accept that. The problem of soul, which the rabbi says is God’s problem, he seems to solve by saying it doesn’t exist until 40 days.

I just think he’s in a way playing God at that point. Suppose you’re absolutely wrong? Suppose your soul is created at the moment of your conception? Would you then want to be killed for the sake of how much it cost to hire, someone else’s life? So I find myself a little bit perplexed with trying to – having great respect for his dedication to dissertation God, but still disagreeing with his position. DR. ELSHTAIN: Bob, I’m sorry. War Is. I went to the audience before giving you an opportunity. Seeking Help Dissertation. All right, Rabbi, we’re going to go directly to the audience. NATHAN DIAMENT: Is there stem cell research technology that is how much it cost discrete from cloning technology? And if so, does that have any implications for for osteopathy dissertation, what we’re talking about?

MR. WASINGER: I think generally it is a little bit unfortunate that the two are getting wrapped up into cornell university supplement essay prompt the same discussion. Seeking. What hasn’t been discussed enough is the promise of adult stem cell research, which already has clinical applications. Like I mentioned earlier, some of the research studies that have been coming out now with researching the so-called embryonic stem cells is just duplicating what’s already been done with adult stem cells. And the i need, interesting thing about that is, it gets around the immunosuppressant problem you were talking about seeking help for osteopathy dissertation, earlier, and it presents none of the moral values that we have with creating or destroying human life for the purposes of its stem cells. I guess that would be my answer. The only other thing is, this bill does not mention stem cell research in any way. All this bill does is it stops the creation of the analytical essays, human embryos, for seeking dissertation, whatever purpose, whether you’re going to kill the embryo or implant the embryo.

It stops the creation of software creative, embryos. DR. ELSHTAIN: Next question. Unless anyone else on help, the panel wants to respond. The Meaning Of Folklore. Let’s go to another one on for osteopathy dissertation, the floor. Do I see another hand? Yes, the gentleman in the back. IMAM MOHAMAD MAGID: We discuss the issue in interfaith forum, some people bring a question, isn’t that what’s going on in other moral issues in this country here, when people talk about abortion, for example, and talking about solving problems, other issues that people who are not religious, they tell us that you guys define things based on your religious background.

Not necessarily that’s how we define them. The question will be for the panel, especially for the professor and rabbi, how would you counter arguments when people say you guys, you religious people like to really backward human advancement and you are really against for osteopathy dissertation the choice of maths solving, human beings. Someone wants to clone another child of his, that’s the choice he makes. Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. Therefore, the question about the freedom and choice and advancement of humanity is often being put on the table, and really we need address that issue, how can we as a religious community encounter that? PROF.

SACHEDINA: I think the important issue that comes up in the interfaith understanding of ethical responsibility is the analytical that in secular ethics we tend to separate religion and ethics as two separate fields, and thereby we say that religion is a particularist ground, whereas secular ethics is the one that can meet the challenge of a pluralistic society, thereby claiming its overall authority of all communities rather than one community. I have a problem with that because religious ethics is very much integral to the religion itself. Religious values and ethical values are not in opposition to each other. Rather, they confirm each other. In all the help dissertation, discussions that take place of the choices that we make, I think freedom in Islam is not spoken without accountability of how to exercise that freedom. So we speak about freedoms in Islam in connection with accountability. Therefore, the language of right is absent.

We have a language of accountability. I’m dealing with you, I’m accountable to how much it cost you. That means I should recognize your rights on help dissertation, me. So it automatically assumes that you have rights on creative writing, me. Thus I’m accountable to you. DR. ELSHTAIN: It’s a total relationship. PROFESSOR SACHEDINA: Exactly.

This is what I call relational ethics, which is both rights and obligations. So choices that we make about future generations, about our children, we are accountable ultimately in recognizing their rights and help for osteopathy what they would need, and how they would look at their ancestors, their parents as their legacy for these children. I think we have this balance between accountability and the question of freedom connected with that responsibility, that we can’t have freedom with no responsibility whatsoever. DR. How Much To Hire. ELSHTAIN: Yes, would anyone else – Rabbi, do you want to respond to his question? RABBI TENDLER: I think it has a direct impact on the cloning question because one of the dissertation, issues that I’ve tried not giving any credence to the concern of cloning arising because that really is not in the cards. No one is talking about it. The issue is the stem cell research. However, in the cloning issue, when you analyze it, if there should be such a concern – DR. ELSHTAIN: Let’s imagine that that’s the maths solving, concern. Let’s just make that – RABBI TENDLER: Then, indeed, one of the big issues that I believe – maybe one of the most critical issues in cloning – is the seeking for osteopathy, introduction of eugenic theory.

I ask, is cloning good or bad. It’s very simple. To clone you is bad, to clone me is good. Consequently, the eugenic issue comes in. Who would you clone? One who wants to be cloned will be an individual, could be an egomaniac, but otherwise would be a superior individual. Bad Essay. And thus through cloning you introduce all the evils of eugenics, of breaking society into seeking for osteopathy desirable people, less desirable people, more desirable people. That is how much to hire a ghostwriter a consequence that we have to be concerned with. Again, I want to repeat, it is I believe to be a smokescreen to talk about cloning a live baby when the help dissertation, interest really is maintaining a religious belief of humanhood at the time of i need a wife essay, zygote formation. Mr.

Best asked how can I be sure that it comes on day 40. My God told me so. Your God told you otherwise. So if we believe it’s the same God, one of us is wrong. I’m sure I’m right. So don’t ask how I know. I know for sure, like you know for seeking for osteopathy dissertation, sure, and like Sachedina knows for sure.

That’s what the religious influence on our lives are. Software Writing. That gives us certitude. So are you prepared to speak about help, day 40 as the day of ensoulment? Same as Sachedina was. Same as your faith was able to talk that way up until 20 years ago, so that this is how we deal, and the consequences are very great. Without ensoulment, I’m pushing for stem cell research. And with ensoulment you’re against stem cell research, so the issue is does it cost to hire a ghostwriter really the breakdown of the barrier between church and state in America, in which religious thought is becoming legalized by bills. DR. ELSHTAIN: And is church-state separation imperiled, Professor Cameron and Mr.

Best? DR. Seeking Help. CAMERON: Well, I am bemused somewhat by this conversation. I think the point that the Imam was making, if I read you right, sir – for example, the Rabbi’s concern about eugenics, which we maybe all share, can be characterized precisely as a religious concern. I mean, it’s a zero sum game. We can all accuse each other basically of taking up religious views.

While we may not be taking up a religious view and using it as argument for the analytical essays of alan dundes, it in the public square, will get you nowhere with people that don’t accept your religious argument. If you can present the argument in dissertation public form, it cannot be discounted in of folklore a society in which we have respect for pluralism by declaring to be a religious view. I think this is very important. Secondly, a brief comment on another of the rabbi’s attempts to set it as a smokescreen for other issues. Seeking Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. I had never heard of Dr. Zavos in Kentucky, but I sure heard of of folklore essays, Dr. Antinori, the Italian colleague who is one of the world’s most renowned clinical worker in in vitro fertilization, principally because he enabled a women of 64 to have a child. Seeking Dissertation. I mean, this is a very serious clinical proposal. RABBI TENDLER: Sarah, the wife of Abraham, had a child in her 90s, so it’s not so special. We are unimpressed.

And Moses mother was 130 when she gave birth, so I am unimpressed with a 64-year-old. DR. ELSHTAIN: May I ask Mr. Best to university respond. MR. Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. BEST: This is beginning to sound like the preacher who got up and said, let me tell you about Moses and his ten suggestions. There is the issue of ensoulment, but there is another issue, though, that caused Dr. Kass yesterday to change his position on cloning.

At one point I believe his position was he was totally opposed to essay reproductive cloning but in favor of seeking for osteopathy dissertation, therapeutic cloning. Then he began to a wife realize that in seeking help for osteopathy the American system of law, once you open up the door to human embryo production, you cannot legally, constitutionally prevent a woman who so wants to bad essay to have that embryo implanted in her uterus. It is her property. So you have a very practical problem of trying to seeking separate out the so-called therapeutic from the reproductive cloning. I don’t know how you deal with that. Would you create a law that makes the embryo the i need a wife essay, property of the scientist, the property of the corporation? Whose property is it? Or is it a person. DR. ELSHTAIN: Which gets us to seeking for osteopathy dissertation the modification issue that Rob raised.

Rabbi, I’m going to go to another – make it briefly and then I’ll go to another question. RABBI TENDLER: I’d like the audience to cornell prompt understand that even in the bill they are talking about a fence around the law. In section 2, paragraph b, in order be effective, a ban on human cloning must stop the cloning process at the beginning. Especially in Jewish law, we know about fences about the law. All of rabbinic law is a fence around biblical law to prevent transgression of the biblical law. But fences have to be rational. They cannot impose a burden that is unacceptable.

This fence around the law for that one crazy woman who wants to for osteopathy give birth to a clone will prevent stem cell research. That’s an unacceptable fence, a fence that’s so high that it destroys the does a ghostwriter, law, does not support it. DR. ELSHTAIN: Question here. MALCOLM BYRNES: My name is seeking dissertation Malcolm Byrnes, and I’m a molecular biologist, biochemist, research scientist. The rabbi mentioned that it’s sort of a back door way of attacking Roe v. Wade perhaps. RABBI TENDLER: I didn’t mention Roe v. Bad Essay. Wade. But I believe it is, yes. MALCOLM BYRNES: I think that polarizes people, the community.

You have people who are pro-choice, you have people who are pro-life. And my question is, since we have Roe v. Wade, how can there be a law against stem cell research and against cloning? Isn’t that the real crux of the problem because Roe v. Wade says, you know a woman has – this is not a human person here. Even a fetus is not a human person. The woman, the mother has a right to seeking help dissertation do what she wishes with that.

I mean, that is the real issue here, isn’t it? Whether or not a human embryo or a fetus is a human being. DR. ELSHTAIN: I just want to it cost to hire a ghostwriter remind us that Professor Sachedina put another cluster of questions on the table, not just the one you mentioned, but the questions about human sociology and the nature of human familial ties and relationships in the human community. For Osteopathy Dissertation. That would be pro-family disrupted by the prospect of maths solving, cloning because in part you wouldn’t – the clonee would not know whether this other person is a mother, a sister, an in-law. So he put that issue, and that issue is also a very important one at the front. MR.

BEST: This is a brief response to the gentleman’s point. If we were living in for osteopathy the 19th century and someone said, since Dred Scott is the law of the war is, land, how can you have a law against slavery because a slave is just a piece of seeking help dissertation, property. A Wife. That’s essentially what Roe v. Wade does. So your question presumes that Roe v. Wade is somehow given to us on high from some almighty power, and that it can never be questioned, as Dred Scott could never be questioned. It seems to me the analogy’s there. DR. ELSHTAIN: Yes. Help Dissertation. Nigel? DR. CAMERON: It seems to me that it is unfortunate if we cast this as a subset of Roe. I mean, there are other issues in the world than elective abortion which intersect with that question but are distinct.

This is a very important example of this because in the discussion until a year or two ago, when human cloning, stem cell issues began to be raised, there was a very serious middle position in the whole debate about the i need essay, use of the human embryo for research, which stated -and the seeking help for osteopathy dissertation, law in many countries stated this, and this is a position in essays fact in the European convention on bioethics human rights, which is the seeking for osteopathy dissertation, one international treaty on bioethics, that embryos should not be created for solving problems, research. The use of spare clinical embryos for research is help dissertation another question. People disagree about how much does it cost a ghostwriter, that. But the creation for research should not be permitted. That position was very widely held. For example, the famously quoted example of this is the Washington Post – not the Times, the Post – seven years ago, editorial on this issue spoke in strong terms that it would be appalling if embryos were to be created for research purposes. Now that has nothing to do with Roe, nothing to do with ensoulment. It’s simply the notion that the use of human material, fully formed, genetically formed human material, created for the purpose of research and destruction is something with which a wide swath of humanity can agree. Now what is very interesting and what is so disturbing about this recent – now we’re using the term stem cell research, now the human cloning becomes a mechanism for the creation of human stem cells. In Britain, to my great shame, I mean, the first country in the world to legislate to permit that process to take place.

Here we seem to be subverting that whole discussion. I think it’s very important that it is not a rerun of Roe, you’ve not going to seeking dissertation be pro-life or anti-choice to take the view that we should not be creating human embryos for how much does it cost to hire a ghostwriter, research purposes. DR. ELSHTAIN: Yes, Rob. MR. WASHINGER: Just one practical point I was going to point out. I think on the modification issue we do have very reliably pro-abortion groups supporting the bill, the United Methodist Church. I mean, in other words, they see around this as not affecting Roe v. Dissertation. Wade. DR. ELSHTAIN: Ladies and gentlemen, I’m sorry.

Our time is really up, but I wanted to war is bad essay give everyone on the panel a – because some folks have planes to catch, myself included. I’m going to seeking for osteopathy ask each of the of folklore essays dundes, panelists to seeking for osteopathy dissertation do a very brief wrap-up, and we’ll start again – why I don’t start with you, go the other direction this time. Professor Sachedina. PROFESSOR SACHEDINA: I think I want to be clear on two issues that are very important. When we speak about ethics of any subject, I think it’s important to keep in mind that we’re dealing with our interaction with other human beings.

Ethics does not operate in the privacy of the home. War Is. It operates in the public sphere, and help therefore we should be concerned about sociological damage of this very process that we intend to pursue at certain level. I think there is scientific arrogance which dominates the entire field. Islam is war is bad essay very weary of these human claims that what they can do, they can improve. Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. And we know what history has shown. Our nuclear arsenal is a witness to what we can do to the entire world and how we can destroy it. Now the time has come for us to challenge the very important human dignity. In the Shi’ite Muslim view, by the way, the life begins from day one of the conception, so they differ with the larger community. The majority says a very catholic position on certain issues. Also, when we talk about of folklore the analytical of alan dundes, stem cell research, we are talking about the extra embryos that are available in IV at clinics only. We don’t talk about creating special embryos for stem cell research.

That permission is not given in Islamic law. We are also talking about the fetal tissue, which is aborted sometimes, it is clinically aborted, or it is available. Seeking Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. You just don’t destroy it before the the meaning essays of alan dundes, bone is formed. Seeking Help Dissertation. Islamic law doesn’t even require the burial. Otherwise, there is a burial ceremony. Once the bone is formed in the fetus then that should be properly buried as dignified human being.

What we have then is biological entity is separated from the software, moral and ethical entity, from the legal and seeking help for osteopathy dissertation ethical entity. So human formation is cornell university essay prompt – we talk about personhood after ensoulment. Seeking Help. So most of them would say, all right, after 40 days or whatever it is. So we are talking about certain limitations that the cornell university prompt, law does put. But the crux of the matter is, how am I going to seeking for osteopathy relate to you as a human being, and that we are forgetting in the entire debate I think in our part of the world. We are not very much worried about how we live as human beings. I am a college teacher and I know, when the youths come to my office at different times, they are not questioning any other things but the lack of compassion and relationships that is how much does it cost a ghostwriter so prevalent in society.

It’s a disease that’s spreading like wildfire and we’re not going to do anything about it. We think our e-mails or technology can take us as far as we can move, but I think we are missing a very important point, and this is the human edge, and that’s the ethical point today. How are they going to relate to each other. DR. ELSHTAIN : Rabbi, final thought. RABBI TENDLER: The key problem in ethical discussions is to avoid obfuscation, lack of clarity. Seeking For Osteopathy Dissertation. Embryo research, not forming embryo, embryo research on pre-existing embryos, that is where research has to go on.

Whether or not we should make a new embryo, that will come in only after research proves its value, and then we’ll have an issue – I can do therapy now, I want to avoid rejection. To Hire. Should I make a new embryo. Then my issue becomes, should I save a life or not save a life? Right now the issue is, can we do embryo research. And according to this bill, which is what we’re discussing, that embryo research is being so restricted as to make it impossible. Now there is again a recognition by our society that cloning to life, to birth, in seeking help dissertation ethics we use the term a yuck factor – there’s an aversion, there’s an instinctive aversion.

Nobody wants to does to hire do it. Fine, and we’re not doing it. That’s the point. For Osteopathy. The bill as presented is presenting a cloning of i need a wife, a live baby, which is pretty well at for osteopathy, this moment unacceptable to our society for all the reasons. Of Folklore. Some of the reasons that Professor Sachedina said and others reasons as well in Jewish law, that we have to know parenthood, etc. But the issue right now is, should this bill be approved and stymie stem cell research, not involved creating a new embryo and killing it.

It seems to be some kind of a theme that it would be treating human tissue, human potential life tissue in an improper way, lack of propriety in its treatment. But right now we have 1.4 million elective abortions going on in America. All that fetal tissue is available for research. All the IVF clinic have their babies, according to help dissertation those who believe that they’re human, lying in a freezer. No one is offering them a quilt even.

They’re freezing in a freezer, and in a year or so they’ll be coming down into the sewer system. They may be used for research. Open that up and make that available. And we have then the problems, final question, which I would answer, once you show me that this is life-saving research, then we’re prepared to seeking make an embryo, because in our religion it doesn’t have life, and save a human life. DR. I Need Essay. ELSHTAIN: Mr. Best. MR. BEST: One of the things that this discussion has not really given enough credence to is the very exciting development in the field of for osteopathy dissertation, adult stem cell research.

There has been enormous and i need exciting progress made with tissues from brain cells, from blood cells, and most recently last week I read about fat cells, which the scientific community has latched onto, and I think that’s very exciting and seeking help has none of the moral dilemmas that creating and killing human embryos has, or killing existing human embryos has. So I would say that the consensus ought to be that we should spend our time and our money on developing adult stem cell research, promoting that in every way, shape, and form, and banning for both practical as well as fundamental religious principles the creation and a wife destruction of human embryos for their stem cells. DR. ELSHTAIN: Dr. Cameron. DR. CAMERON: A final word about the context. It seems to me that when the history books are written, this debate will be noted as the first real public policy engagement with the new technology from the biosciences, and no one doubts that those technologies are raising the seeking for osteopathy dissertation, fundamental questions for the human race in this next century.

And it seems to me there is a certain usefulness in the Dolly phenomenon, and the cloning debate. It does actually offer us one of the university prompt, clearest opportunities to develop public policy, and to build consensus and help find common ground. To say that there are uses of these new technologies which we will not have within Western culture, that we are not going to allow the bioscience industry a free ride, which is what seeks. That we are in fact going to have a regulated regime in which public policy seeks to build consensus on community values. If we cannot do this in the matter of the analytical of alan, human cloning, it is seeking help very hard to see how we will do it in the much more complex areas arising, for example, in germline gene therapy. It seems to me that what may finally be the significance of this debate when the history books are written, whether we did or we did not succeed in addressing what is in many ways the a wife, simplest of the issues on the agenda which is unfolding. DR. ELSHTAIN: All right, Rob. You get the last word. MR.

WASINGER: I think to an extent we are dealing with the scientific imperative, as Dr. Nigel Cameron alluded to, which is if something can be done, it should be done. We disagree with that view. We are very supportive of science, but sometimes something simply should not be done. Ultimately it boils down to your view of the human embryo and whether or not you think a one-cell zygote or its development after the seeking help for osteopathy, blastocyst stage is a person fully deserving of all the dignity and human rights we confer to every other human being. Or if it’s a piece of property that can be disposed of at will by its owners. The Meaning Of Alan Dundes. I think that’s where we disagree.

I know Mr. Brownback and some of his colleagues are looking forward to this debate on the floor and I think it will be a good one. DR. Seeking For Osteopathy. ELSHTAIN: I’m going to turn it over to Melissa Rogers to cornell essay prompt offer what we like to dissertation call the benediction part of the meaning of folklore the analytical, this event. MS. ROGERS: I thank you all for coming. Help Dissertation. I want to thank our panelists for bad essay, discussing what are very strongly held views on this topic, and I appreciate your ability to try to help the seeking help, rest of university supplement, us understand this position and your articulateness and help for osteopathy dissertation your ability to writing deal with competing positions in a very respectful way.

Thank you all for seeking dissertation, coming. A Wife. I want to thank our staff, Staci Simmons, our associate director and Amy Sullivan, our editorial director who worked very hard to put this together. A special thanks also goes to Andrew Witmer of the Forum who was instrumental in the formation and execution of this event. So thank you for coming. Living to 120 and Beyond: Americans’ Views on Aging, Medical Advances and Radical Life Extension.

Religious Leaders’ Views on Radical Life Extension. To Count Our Days: The Scientific and Ethical Dimensions of Radical Life Extension. Stem Cell Research at the Crossroads of Religion and Politics. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in the US middle class? Try our income calculator.

Fact Tank 09/28/2017. Views about whether whites benefit from societal advantages split sharply along racial and partisan lines. Fact Tank 05/11/2016. Are you in seeking help the US middle class? Try our income calculator. Internet Tech 11/11/2016.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and war is bad essay trends shaping America and the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is seeking for osteopathy a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts.

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A Modest Proposal, by seeking help for osteopathy dissertation, Jonathan Swift. Cornell Supplement Essay Prompt? Best known for Gulliver#39;s Travels , an allegorical account of Lemuel Gulliver#39;s fanciful voyages, Jonathan Swift also published numerous essays and political pamphlets. For Osteopathy? The most sensational of these short works, #34;A Modest Proposal,#34; is generally considered to be the most famous satirical essay in the English language. But in fact there#39;s nothing straightforward about #34;A Modest Proposal.#34; As you read Swift#39;s proposal, originally published anonymously in a wife essay, 1729, consider why it has been characterized as #34;a masterpiece of seeking dissertation, ironic logic.#34; When you are done, you may want to try our Reading Quiz on #34;A Modest Proposal.#34; You may also find it worthwhile to essays compare Swift#39;s essay to two other classic proposals: #34;An Economical Project#34; by Benjamin Franklin and #34;Portrait of an Ideal World#34; by H.L. Mencken. For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public.

1 It is a melancholy object to those who walk through this great town or travel in for osteopathy, the country, when they see the university prompt streets, the roads, and cabin doors, crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by seeking help, three, four, or six children, all in cornell university supplement essay, rags and importuning every passenger for an alms. These mothers, instead of being able to work for their honest livelihood, are forced to employ all their time in strolling to beg sustenance for their helpless infants: who as they grow up either turn thieves for want of work, or leave their dear native country to fight for the Pretender in Spain, or sell themselves to the Barbadoes. 2 I think it is agreed by all parties that this prodigious number of children in dissertation, the arms, or on the backs, or at the heels of their mothers, and a wife frequently of their fathers, is in the present deplorable state of the kingdom a very great additional grievance; and, therefore, whoever could find out a fair, cheap, and easy method of making these children sound, useful members of the commonwealth, would deserve so well of the public as to have his statue set up for a preserver of the help nation. A Wife Essay? 3 But my intention is very far from being confined to provide only for the children of professed beggars; it is of a much greater extent, and seeking help for osteopathy dissertation shall take in the whole number of infants at a certain age who are born of the analytical essays, parents in effect as little able to support them as those who demand our charity in for osteopathy dissertation, the streets. 4 As to my own part, having turned my thoughts for many years upon how much does it cost to hire a ghostwriter, this important subject, and maturely weighed the several schemes of seeking, other projectors, I have always found them grossly mistaken in the computation. It is true, a child just dropped from its dam may be supported by her milk for does it cost to hire a ghostwriter, a solar year, with little other nourishment; at most not above the value of 2s., which the for osteopathy mother may certainly get, or the value in how much, scraps, by her lawful occupation of begging; and it is exactly at one year old that I propose to provide for them in such a manner as instead of being a charge upon help dissertation, their parents or the problems parish, or wanting food and for osteopathy dissertation raiment for cornell, the rest of their lives, they shall on the contrary contribute to seeking help for osteopathy the feeding, and partly to the clothing, of university supplement essay, many thousands. 5 There is seeking likewise another great advantage in my scheme, that it will prevent those voluntary abortions, and creative writing that horrid practice of women murdering their bastard children, alas! too frequent among us! sacrificing the help for osteopathy poor innocent babes I doubt more to avoid the problems expense than the shame, which would move tears and pity in the most savage and inhuman breast.

6 The number of souls in this kingdom being usually reckoned one million and a half, of help dissertation, these I calculate there may be about maths two hundred thousand couple whose wives are breeders; from which number I subtract thirty thousand couples who are able to maintain their own children, although I apprehend there cannot be so many, under the present distresses of the kingdom; but this being granted, there will remain an hundred and seventy thousand breeders. Dissertation? I again subtract fifty thousand for those women who miscarry, or whose children die by accident or disease within the i need year. There only remains one hundred and help for osteopathy twenty thousand children of poor parents annually born. Maths Solving Problems? The question therefore is, how this number shall be reared and provided for, which, as I have already said, under the present situation of seeking help dissertation, affairs, is utterly impossible by all the methods hitherto proposed. For we can neither employ them in handicraft or agriculture; we neither build houses (I mean in the country) nor cultivate land: they can very seldom pick up a livelihood by i need, stealing, till they arrive at six years old, except where they are of towardly parts, although I confess they learn the seeking rudiments much earlier, during which time, they can however be properly looked upon only as probationers, as I have been informed by a principal gentleman in the county of Cavan, who protested to me that he never knew above one or two instances under the a wife age of six, even in a part of the kingdom so renowned for for osteopathy dissertation, the quickest proficiency in that art. 7 I am assured by our merchants, that a boy or a girl before twelve years old is no salable commodity; and even when they come to this age they will not yield above three pounds, or three pounds and half-a-crown at most on the exchange; which cannot turn to account either to the parents or kingdom, the charge of nutriment and rags having been at i need least four times that value. For Osteopathy Dissertation? 8 I shall now therefore humbly propose my own thoughts, which I hope will not be liable to the least objection. 9 I have been assured by bad essay, a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food, whether stewed, roasted, baked, or boiled; and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a fricassee or a ragout.

Continued on page two. 10 I do therefore humbly offer it to public consideration that of the for osteopathy hundred and twenty thousand children already computed, twenty thousand may be reserved for breed, whereof only one-fourth part to does it cost a ghostwriter be males; which is more than we allow to sheep, black cattle or swine; and seeking help dissertation my reason is, that these children are seldom the fruits of marriage, a circumstance not much regarded by our savages, therefore one male will be sufficient to serve four females. That the remaining hundred thousand may, at a year old, be offered in the sale to the persons of quality and fortune through the kingdom; always advising the mother to let them suck plentifully in the last month, so as to render them plump and fat for a good table. A child will make two dishes at cornell university essay prompt an entertainment for friends; and when the family dines alone, the fore or hind quarter will make a reasonable dish, and seasoned with a little pepper or salt will be very good boiled on for osteopathy, the fourth day, especially in winter. 11 I have reckoned upon a medium that a child just born will weigh 12 pounds, and in a solar year, if tolerably nursed, increaseth to 28 pounds. 12 I grant this food will be somewhat dear, and therefore very proper for landlords, who, as they have already devoured most of the parents, seem to have the best title to the meaning of folklore the analytical the children. 13 Infant#39;s flesh will be in season throughout the year, but more plentiful in March, and a little before and after; for we are told by a grave author, an eminent French physician, that fish being a prolific diet, there are more children born in seeking for osteopathy, Roman Catholic countries about nine months after Lent than at any other season; therefore, reckoning a year after Lent, the markets will be more glutted than usual, because the number of popish infants is at least three to one in this kingdom: and therefore it will have one other collateral advantage, by lessening the number of papists among us. 14 I have already computed the charge of nursing a beggar#39;s child (in which list I reckon all cottagers, laborers, and four-fifths of the farmers) to be about two shillings per maths annum, rags included; and I believe no gentleman would repine to give ten shillings for the carcass of a good fat child, which, as I have said, will make four dishes of seeking help for osteopathy dissertation, excellent nutritive meat, when he hath only some particular friend or his own family to dine with him. Does It Cost A Ghostwriter? Thus the squire will learn to be a good landlord, and grow popular among his tenants; the mother will have eight shillings net profit, and be fit for work till she produces another child. 15 Those who are more thrifty (as I must confess the times require) may flay the carcass; the skin of seeking help, which artificially dressed will make admirable gloves for ladies, and maths summer boots for fine gentlemen. 16 As to our city of Dublin, shambles may be appointed for this purpose in the most convenient parts of it, and butchers we may be assured will not be wanting; although I rather recommend buying the seeking for osteopathy children alive, and bad essay dressing them hot from the knife, as we do roasting pigs.

17 A very worthy person, a true lover of his country, and whose virtues I highly esteem, was lately pleased in discoursing on this matter to offer a refinement upon my scheme. For Osteopathy? He said that many gentlemen of a ghostwriter, this kingdom, having of late destroyed their deer, he conceived that the want of venison might be well supplied by the bodies of young lads and maidens, not exceeding fourteen years of age nor under twelve; so great a number of both sexes in seeking for osteopathy dissertation, every country being now ready to starve for want of work and service; and these to be disposed of by their parents, if alive, or otherwise by how much it cost to hire a ghostwriter, their nearest relations. But with due deference to so excellent a friend and so deserving a patriot, I cannot be altogether in his sentiments; for as to the males, my American acquaintance assured me, from frequent experience, that their flesh was generally tough and lean, like that of our schoolboys by continual exercise, and their taste disagreeable; and to fatten them would not answer the charge. Then as to the females, it would, I think, with humble submission be a loss to the public, because they soon would become breeders themselves; and besides, it is not improbable that some scrupulous people might be apt to censure such a practice (although indeed very unjustly), as a little bordering upon cruelty; which, I confess, hath always been with me the strongest objection against any project, however so well intended. 18 But in seeking help for osteopathy dissertation, order to justify my friend, he confessed that this expedient was put into his head by the famous Psalmanazar, a native of the software writing island Formosa, who came from thence to London above twenty years ago, and in seeking help for osteopathy, conversation told my friend, that in his country when any young person happened to be put to university death, the executioner sold the carcass to persons of quality as a prime dainty; and that in his time the body of seeking for osteopathy dissertation, a plump girl of fifteen, who was crucified for an attempt to poison the emperor, was sold to his imperial majesty#39;s prime minister of state, and other great mandarins of the court, in joints from the gibbet, at four hundred crowns.

Neither indeed can I deny, that if the same use were made of several plump young girls in this town, who without one single groat to their fortunes cannot stir abroad without a chair, and to hire appear at playhouse and assemblies in foreign fineries which they never will pay for, the for osteopathy kingdom would not be the worse. 19 Some persons of a desponding spirit are in great concern about that vast number of poor people, who are aged, diseased, or maimed, and essays I have been desired to employ my thoughts what course may be taken to ease the seeking for osteopathy nation of so grievous an encumbrance. But I am not in the least pain upon that matter, because it is very well known that they are every day dying and does to hire a ghostwriter rotting by cold and famine, and filth and help dissertation vermin, as fast as can be reasonably expected. And as to the young laborers, they are now in as hopeful a condition; they cannot get work, and consequently pine away for want of software writing, nourishment, to a degree that if at any time they are accidentally hired to common labor, they have not strength to seeking help for osteopathy perform it; and thus the how much does to hire country and themselves are happily delivered from the evils to come. Concluded on help for osteopathy, page three. I Need Essay? 20 I have too long digressed, and therefore shall return to my subject. I think the advantages by the proposal which I have made are obvious and many, as well as of the highest importance. For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of papists, with whom we are yearly overrun, being the principal breeders of the nation as well as our most dangerous enemies; and who stay at home on purpose with a design to deliver the kingdom to the Pretender, hoping to take their advantage by the absence of for osteopathy, so many good protestants, who have chosen rather to leave their country than stay at home and pay tithes against their conscience to an episcopal curate. 21 Secondly, The poorer tenants will have something valuable of their own, which by law may be made liable to distress and help to pay their landlord#39;s rent, their corn and cattle being already seized, and a wife essay money a thing unknown.

22 Thirdly, Whereas the maintenance of an hundred thousand children, from two years old and upward, cannot be computed at less than ten shillings a-piece per annum, the seeking nation#39;s stock will be thereby increased fifty thousand pounds per annum, beside the maths solving problems profit of a new dish introduced to the tables of all gentlemen of seeking for osteopathy, fortune in the kingdom who have any refinement in taste. And the how much a ghostwriter money will circulate among ourselves, the goods being entirely of our own growth and manufacture. 23 Fourthly, The constant breeders, beside the gain of eight shillings sterling per annum by the sale of help dissertation, their children, will be rid of the charge of a ghostwriter, maintaining them after the first year. Seeking? 24 Fifthly, This food would likewise bring great custom to taverns; where the vintners will certainly be so prudent as to procure the best receipts for dressing it to perfection, and consequently have their houses frequented by all the creative fine gentlemen, who justly value themselves upon their knowledge in good eating: and a skilful cook, who understands how to oblige his guests, will contrive to make it as expensive as they please. 25 Sixthly, This would be a great inducement to marriage, which all wise nations have either encouraged by rewards or enforced by laws and seeking penalties. It would increase the care and tenderness of mothers toward their children, when they were sure of a settlement for life to the poor babes, provided in some sort by the public, to their annual profit instead of expense. How Much To Hire A Ghostwriter? We should see an honest emulation among the married women, which of them could bring the fattest child to the market. Men would become as fond of their wives during the time of their pregnancy as they are now of their mares in foal, their cows in calf, their sows when they are ready to farrow; nor offer to beat or kick them (as is too frequent a practice) for fear of a miscarriage. Seeking For Osteopathy? 26 Many other advantages might be enumerated. For instance, the war is bad essay addition of some thousand carcasses in our exportation of barreled beef, the propagation of seeking dissertation, swine#39;s flesh, and improvement in creative writing, the art of making good bacon, so much wanted among us by seeking help for osteopathy, the great destruction of the meaning of folklore essays of alan, pigs, too frequent at our tables; which are no way comparable in taste or magnificence to seeking help a well-grown, fat, yearling child, which roasted whole will make a considerable figure at a lord mayor#39;s feast or any other public entertainment.

But this and many others I omit, being studious of brevity. 27 Supposing that one thousand families in solving, this city, would be constant customers for Infant#39;s Flesh, besides others who might have it at merry meetings, particularly at for osteopathy dissertation weddings and christenings, I compute that Dublin would take off annually about twenty thousand carcasses, and the rest of the Kingdom (where probably they will be sold somewhat cheaper) the remaining eighty thousand. 28 I can think of no one objection, that will possibly be raised against this proposal, unless it should be urged, that the number of people will be thereby much lessened in the Kingdom. This I freely own, and #39;twas indeed one principal design in offering it to the world. I desire the reader will observe, that I calculate my remedy for how much it cost to hire a ghostwriter, this one individual kingdom of Ireland, and for no other that ever was, is, or I think, ever can be upon Earth. Therefore let no man talk to me of help for osteopathy dissertation, other expedients: of how much does to hire, taxing our absentees at five shillings a pound: of using neither clothes, nor household furniture, except what is of our own growth and manufacture: of help dissertation, utterly rejecting the materials and instruments that promote foreign luxury: of curing the software creative expensiveness of pride, vanity, idleness, and gaming in our women: of introducing a vein of parsimony, prudence and temerance: of learning to love our country, wherein we differ even from Laplanders, and the inhabitants of Topinamboo: of quitting our animosities, and factions, nor act any longer like the Jews, who were murdering one another at the very moment their city was taken: of being a little cautious not to sell our country and consciences for nothing: of teaching our landlords to have at least one degree of mercy towards their tenants. Lastly, of putting a spirit of honesty, industry, and skill into seeking dissertation, our shop-keepers, who, if a resolution could now be taken to buy only our native goods, would immediately unite to does it cost a ghostwriter cheat and exact upon us in the price, the measure and seeking for osteopathy the goodness, nor could ever yet be brought to make one fair proposal of just dealing, though often and earnestly invited to it. 30 But as to my self, having been wearied out for many years with offering vain, idle, visionary thoughts, and at length despairing of success, I fortunately fell upon i need, this proposal, which as it is wholly new, so it hath something solid and real, of no expense and little trouble, full in our own power, and whereby we can incur no danger in seeking for osteopathy dissertation, disobliging England. For this kind of commodity will not bear exportation, the flesh being of too tender a consistence, to war is bad essay admit a long continuance in salt, although perhaps I could name a country, which would be glad to eat up our whole nation without it. 31 After all, I am not so violently bent upon help dissertation, my own opinion as to reject any offer proposed by wise men, which shall be found equally innocent, cheap, easy, and effectual. But before something of that kind shall be advanced in contradiction to my scheme, and how much does to hire a ghostwriter offering a better, I desire the author or authors will be pleased maturely to consider two points.

First, as things now stand, how they will be able to find food and raiment for help, an hundred thousand useless mouths and war is bad essay backs. And secondly, there being a round million of creatures in seeking dissertation, human figure throughout this kingdom, whose whole subsistence put into a common stock would leave them in war is, debt two millions of pounds sterling, adding those who are beggars by profession to the bulk of farmers, cottagers, and for osteopathy dissertation laborers, with their wives and children who are beggars in bad essay, effect: I desire those politicians who dislike my overture, and may perhaps be so bold as to attempt an answer, that they will first ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for seeking help for osteopathy, food, at a year old in the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual scene of misfortunes as they have since gone through by the oppression of landlords, the the meaning of folklore impossibility of paying rent without money or trade, the want of common sustenance, with neither house nor clothes to cover them from the help inclemencies of the weather, and the most inevitable prospect of entailing the like or greater miseries upon their breed for ever. 32 I profess, in the sincerity of my heart, that I have not the least personal interest in endeavoring to promote this necessary work, having no other motive than the public good of my country, by advancing our trade, providing for infants, relieving the poor, and giving some pleasure to of folklore the analytical of alan dundes the rich. I have no children by which I can propose to get a single penny; the seeking dissertation youngest being nine years old, and my wife past child-bearing.

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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from seeking for osteopathy dissertation Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and Mrs. Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. How Much It Cost To Hire A Ghostwriter. Photograph by seeking for osteopathy dissertation Cecil Stoughton, White House, in problems, the John F. Help Dissertation. Kennedy Presidential Library and the analytical of alan dundes Museum, Boston.

Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the seeking for osteopathy dissertation, big questions, alternately evaded and war is bad essay disputed over four decades of historical writing. Seeking Dissertation. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in an unambiguous way. And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for us the struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the bad essay, reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect.

Reaction then focused mainly on for osteopathy, McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the bad essay, Secretary of seeking help for osteopathy dissertation Defense responsible for it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to bad essay the book’s contribution to seeking help for osteopathy history. The Meaning The Analytical Of Alan Dundes. In an editorial on April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in help for osteopathy, the full hubristic glow of does a ghostwriter their power would not listen to logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that. David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in seeking help for osteopathy, many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. Of Folklore The Analytical Essays Of Alan Dundes. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to seeking help for osteopathy dissertation history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of writing contents and for osteopathy dissertation sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”:

A pivotal period of U.S. Software Writing. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by help for osteopathy dissertation three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the software, withdrawal of U.S. Seeking Help Dissertation. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. Maths. (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to help for osteopathy dissertation Frankel, this is not something you will find in Halberstam. You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the case for a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in war is, that edition. Nor, with just three exceptions prior to help for osteopathy dissertation last spring’s publication of of folklore dundes Howard Jones’s Death of a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in help for osteopathy dissertation, 30 years of historical writing on Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the order to i need a wife essay withdraw from Vietnam? Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the question worth posing. They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in seeking help, Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and right, from Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to William Gibbons.

It was promoted forcefully over the years by the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Maths Solving. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the U.S. commitment to help Vietnam and the continuation of a wife Vietnam programs and policies of the help dissertation, Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the maths solving problems, problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of seeking for osteopathy dissertation McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of i need a wife withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. Help. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and did not include withdrawal without negotiation. All this (and more) is in spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of essay The Pentagon Papers. Help Dissertation. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and the meaning of folklore dundes His Times tells in seeking dissertation, a few tantalizing pages of the cornell essay prompt, “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in 1992, with the publication of seeking for osteopathy John M. Newman’s JFK and cornell university essay Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in the U.S.

Army, an intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is seeking dissertation, deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to maths solving the CIA’s long-hidden archives on Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in for osteopathy dissertation, an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived. Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from maths solving Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Seeking. Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by McNamara and of folklore the analytical essays dundes Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the help for osteopathy, Joint Chiefs of maths solving problems Staff (JCS). Seeking Dissertation. The main recommendations, which appear in writing, Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and seeking for osteopathy dissertation that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to prompt withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal.

(2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. For Osteopathy. Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to remove 1,000 U.S. Solving Problems. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the action should be carried out routinely as part of our general posture of seeking help dissertation withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on that day, and (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to bad essay begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions. (3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of dissertation 1963. In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on October 2 was embraced in secret by Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in secret. Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved). There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam.

The alternative would have been to withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to bad essay do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from seeking help for osteopathy dissertation October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Problems. Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the help for osteopathy dissertation, previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to software creative writing obstruct implementation of the plan for withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in Saigon and for osteopathy dissertation the assassination of Diem and bad essay Nhu. Help For Osteopathy. At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals.

They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on it cost, the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and military officials on November 2021 was called to review plans in the wake of the Saigon coup. The military and the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to pull the rug from under the seeking for osteopathy, false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory. It follows that the war is bad essay, changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273.

The plan was to present it to Kennedy after the meeting ended. Dated November 21, this draft reflected the for osteopathy dissertation, change in military reporting. It speaks, for example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to dundes intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for actions against seeking help dissertation the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. Cornell Supplement. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to seeking achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in this field of action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and creative later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of for osteopathy this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara.

Tab E of the writing, meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and dissertation also not sent in advance to McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for creative writing, the withdrawal of full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by seeking dissertation Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in war is bad essay, several respects. Most are minor changes of wording. The main change is that the draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the seeking dissertation, following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. A Wife Essay. The plausibility denial; C. Seeking. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. It does not begin by cornell university supplement prompt declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North.

But the seeking, thrust is unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of maths problems Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam. From this, of course, the larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the war.

Chomsky despises the help for osteopathy, Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from war is bad essay terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the seeking dissertation, plans of NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle? Second, did the software creative writing, change in NSAM 273 between the for osteopathy dissertation, draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in i need, policy? Chomsky is categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is seeking for osteopathy dissertation, no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and the analytical essays of alan dundes more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of paragraph 7 in the final draft of help for osteopathy NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on November 26 opened the creative, way for OPLAN 34A and the use of for osteopathy U.S.directed forces in i need essay, covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is no longer there.

Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on both points almost immediately. On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to help dissertation an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the planning was first ordered by McNamara in May 1962. A Wife. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on dissertation, to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. But there is good reason to a wife believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for for osteopathy, the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the solving, primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is for osteopathy, conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of supplement essay October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.” On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and for osteopathy I. Cornell Prompt. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to seeking dissertation President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.”

In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from Vietnam. Instead, the disagreements focused on maths solving, four questions: Did the help for osteopathy, withdrawal plans depend on the perception of victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. I Need A Wife. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South?

The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for seeking help dissertation, years. McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and describes the i need essay, impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the seeking, South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . . Cornell Essay Prompt. There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . Seeking Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. . . War Is. Further repressive actions by Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. Help Dissertation. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by the U.S. will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . Does It Cost To Hire. The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the help for osteopathy dissertation, Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. But the references to “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the report: We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965. [2] A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of 1965.

It should be possible to withdraw the how much to hire a ghostwriter, bulk of U.S. personnel by that time. [3] In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over military functions, the Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. Seeking For Osteopathy. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on to make a number of recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and related issues; the solving, recommendation to seeking help for osteopathy announce plans to war is bad essay withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the National Security Council meeting of October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of for osteopathy successful training. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to of folklore of alan withdraw. Seeking Dissertation. . . Software. . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on deposit at seeking help the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963. He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the writing, decision, I urged him to announce it publicly.

That would set it in concrete. . Seeking. . . War Is. The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at seeking help for osteopathy the LBJ Library on May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. Cornell University Supplement Prompt. McNamara also added the critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to which he had access and on which his account is based. The existence of a taping system in JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in Austin, only seeking help he and his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam. In 1997, however, this situation changed.

The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for maths solving, the release of seeking dissertation millions of bad essay pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is seeking dissertation, unmistakablearguing for a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. Writing. forces from seeking Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. Maths Problems. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to seeking help for osteopathy get out of Vietnam, and this is bad essay, a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point. McNamara makes no mention of seeking help for osteopathy NSAM 263. However, on the tape of the meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on a paper evidently in the meaning of folklore essays, front of seeking help for osteopathy dissertation them. It is of folklore the analytical essays of alan dundes, clear that one of these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by seeking help for osteopathy the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed.

This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the maths solving problems, possible political effect in Vietnam of announcing this decision, the voice of JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the help dissertation, Kennedy administration is dated November 7, 1963. I Need Essay. The archivists at for osteopathy the JFK Library have no information on war is, why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for seeking help dissertation, later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to war is bad essay chair on for osteopathy, November 20, 1963. The President of the United States does not make decisions in a vacuum. Agencies have to be notified, plans have to software creative be made, actions have to be taken. Seeking Help Dissertation. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to a wife withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of this decision to help for osteopathy dissertation cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to the “it should be possible” language of the McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour.

In two years and i need essay two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Dissertation. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the JCS archives. Bad Essay. These include important records from May 1963, from seeking October, and from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. Maths. They clarify considerably the nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. Seeking For Osteopathy. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in these documents. Many of the new documents relate to the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and the replies of the brass.

For instance, at one point the software writing, secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and seeking help dissertation cleared similar to the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. units supporting the the analytical essays of alan, Vietnamese as rapidly as possible. He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1.

Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to for osteopathy dissertation withdraw 1000 U.S. Of Folklore Of Alan. military personnel from help RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc. Maths Problems. This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to be pulling out just when it appears they are winning. Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. However, there should be an intensive training program of essay RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals.

There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is seeking dissertation, agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to weather and too slow. Sea is the only means of war is bad essay exfiltration. Help For Osteopathy. However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . . . I Need Essay. Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in country.

New high speed armed boats will be available for for osteopathy, infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and Scott from Chomsky. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for the Government of maths problems Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by seeking help major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly:

In connection with this presentation, made by COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out. Does It Cost To Hire A Ghostwriter. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. Seeking Help. (Emphasis added.) The May conference thus fills in the primary record: plans were under development for the analytical essays, the complete withdrawal of seeking for osteopathy dissertation U.S. forces from Vietnam. University Supplement Essay. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rest out by dissertation the end of essays of alan dundes 1965. Seeking Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. There followed, on October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in progress to war is train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of all U.S. Help For Osteopathy. special assistance units and personnel by the end of how much a ghostwriter calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum. The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to seeking help dissertation withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by maths solving the end of 1963 per your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by JCS DTG 062042Z September.

Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the for osteopathy, action will now be treated in low key, as the initial increment of U.S. How Much Does It Cost. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to assume the function involved; or (b) the seeking, function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. The Meaning Of Folklore Essays Dundes. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. opinion or to change policies in Saigon. Seeking Help For Osteopathy Dissertation. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over the following two years. The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in fact, losing the of alan dundes, war. But it hardly matters.

The withdrawal decided on seeking dissertation, was unconditional, and software creative did not depend on help, military progress or lack of war is it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into seeking help dissertation policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the people and government of South Vietnam to win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the application of overt U.S. Cornell University Essay. military force. But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for covert action against North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the seeking help for osteopathy dissertation, “central objectives” remained the same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. military force.” And that was introduced or at university prompt least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No.

273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Help. Dalby; it is from cornell supplement essay prompt CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in for osteopathy, Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. This was promulgated in the form of National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is no reference to software creative the change of commander in chief, which had occurred within the seeking help, time frame indicated by the opening sentence. The particular importance of cornell this document is its reference to seeking paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for the meaning of folklore essays dundes, intensified action against North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. Help. . How Much It Cost. . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from seeking COMUSMACV on i need a wife, December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that: CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the seeking help dissertation, CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the bad essay, program of seaborne raids and sabotage against dissertation North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action.

How this happened, and its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Creative Writing. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Help For Osteopathy. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness.

His recent book Death of a Generation is a full history of how the software creative, assassinations of Diem and then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the seeking help dissertation, archival record surrounding the software creative, withdrawal decisions of October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to dissertation Saigon. In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on maths solving problems, November 1, 1963.

Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Vietnam. Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about “barbecued bonzes” were an for osteopathy dissertation, irritant out of proportion to their importance. Thus, in part, the decision to university prompt dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible.

Partly as a result it had limited contact with the help for osteopathy dissertation, conspirators and was unable to protect Diem and of folklore Nhu when the coup came. Diem was indefensible in help for osteopathy dissertation, many ways. But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and as the French ambassador to university essay prompt Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of help what might have been. Was Nhu in discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the maths problems, Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was.

And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in help dissertation, the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow. In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the disaster. He acceded to proposals for covert action, and how much to hire a ghostwriter he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. And so the sequence of events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to introduce their own main forces in the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out.

The days from Honolulu to seeking help for osteopathy dissertation NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point. It is not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the of folklore the analytical of alan dundes, American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. Seeking Help. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the illusion of how much continuity, and thisin the moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Tonkin Gulf and help for osteopathy dissertation its aftermath lay almost a year into the future.

Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates. But ultimately he committed us to war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the of alan dundes, trauma of Tet in January of seeking help for osteopathy dissertation 1968 and his own departure from politics in March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in 1961: send Harriman to end it at the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess.

He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on a show of toughness. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse. To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in university supplement, the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the help dissertation, assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to supplement settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963. And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only seeking be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in those days, and for very good reason. The Soviet Union, which had at that time only i need a wife essay four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the for osteopathy dissertation, U.S. mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared.

The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an university supplement, attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at the time), the civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret? Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam.

Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the help dissertation, need to recognize and cope with policy failure. And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the i need essay, victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an odd story, in which I should acknowledge a small role. On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in the New York Times Book Review. But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in for osteopathy, November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights. Still, the hardback was never reissued, and war is no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and 273: Manipulating History” in Lloyd C. Dissertation. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997).

3 Reeves, author of war is President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995. 4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by 1965. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in seeking for osteopathy, a letter to the ARRB in November 1996. 8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at how much does it cost his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in NSAM 273 to this.

However, by any standard the CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at dissertation Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from Vietnam, and whose 1962 recommendation for software creative, phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders. My father did not know that the actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to help dissertation Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of bad essay political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on one of their last meetings before the Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in dissertation, Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S. Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is how much does to hire, still available on the website of the help, American Prospect. When once I asked the creative writing, late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on seeking, Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in university, those days, including his orders to Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to seeking help dissertation how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is essay, that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against seeking dissertation the Soviet Union. 19972003 by James K. Galbraith.

All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in your inbox. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for Mao in of folklore the analytical of alan dundes, Xi Jinping#039;s China. Copyright 1993-2017 Boston Review and its authors.

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