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Teaching the Undergraduate Research Paper . The Craft of Teaching
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Intellectual property, copyright, and fair use in education - Cogprints
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Intellectual property, copyright, and fair use in education - Cogprints
arugment essays Definition : In this kind of essay, we not only give information but also present an argument with the copyright research, PROS (supporting ideas) and CONS (opposing ideas) of an dissertation knowledge argumentative issue. We should clearly take our stand and write as if we are trying to persuade an opposing audience to adopt new beliefs or behavior. The primary objective is to persuade people to change beliefs that many of papers, them do not want to change. Choosing an argumentative topic is not an easy task. Organisation. The topic should be such that. Copyright Papers Education. X Marijuana should be considered illegal. (Not a good topic because it is too general. In some medical cases, marijuana is nature good vs evil prescribed by the doctors and the patients are encouraged to use it in case of suffering from copyright, too much pain) #8730; Selling and using marijuana in public places should be considered illegal . X We should decide whether we want a bicycle or a car. ( our stand is du travail et croissance not clear: do we support having bicycles or cars?) #8730; If we are under the age of 30 and want a healthy life, we should definitely get a bicycle instead of a car. X Are you one of those who thinks cheating is not good for students? ( a question cannot be an argument) #8730; Cheating helps students learn. X Considering its geological position, Turkey has an important geopolitical role in the EU. ( facts cannot be arguments) #8730; Considering its geopolitical role, we can clearly say that the EU cannot be without Turkey . it should be a topic that can be adequately supported (with statistics, outside source citations, etc.) X I feel that writing an argumentative essay is definitely a challenging task. ( feelings cannot be supported; we cannot persuade other people) If you believe that you can find enough evidence to support your idea and refute others effectively, you can choose challenging topics as well. Copyright Research Papers Education. You can enjoy writing about such topics: Cheating is beneficial for students.
Murat 124 is a very good choice for conscientious drivers. Gay Rights Essay. Stress is good for the human body. Polygamy is quite natural. For women, there is no need for copyright education, men. Organization : All argumentative topics have PROs and CONs . Before starting writing, it is et croissance dissertation imperative to make a list of copyright, these ideas and essay items choose the copyright research, most suitable ones among them for supporting and refuting. There are three possible organization patterns: CON idea 1 ----- Refutation. CON idea 2 ----- Refutation. CON idea 3 ----- Refutation. The sample essay has been written according to the third pattern. Thesis: Do Reiki instead of taking medicine . People should trust medicine since it is essays on human nature good effective and scientifically proven. Reiki is also scientifically proven and research papers does not have side effects . Essay. (refutation method: insufficient claim) Serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and copyright papers education cancer cannot be treated without medicine.
Medicine also cannot treat serious illnesses if not diagnosed at an early stage . (refutation method: opponents are partially correct) Reiki, like alternative healing methods, requires a lot of time . Reiki requires less time if done regularly . (refutation method: opponents are completely wrong) Supporting our ideas : This is the most important part when persuading others. We are asking some people to change their beliefs or actions. Essay. We should be supporting our ideas with such facts, statistics and/or authorities that there should not be room for any doubts. Here are some faulty supports we should avoid: Thesis: Leaving the university and starting to work is good for research papers, the adolescent because … Feelings, emotional arguments (… it makes one feel much better .) Irrelevant examples (wandering off the topic) (… he would then be able to take his girlfriend to expensive restaurants .) Oversimplification (… only then would he understand what it means to be an adult. ) Hasty generalizations (. Et Croissance Dissertation. it is a widely known fact that all adolescents look forward to earning money .) Unreliable, even false outside sources (… according to www.doubtme.com, 80% of copyright research papers education, working men wish they quit school when they were at university and started working at an earlier age. ) For more mistakes in the logic of arguments, see Fallacies. Refuting opposing arguments : Before we start saying that the opponents are wrong, we should specify their opposing ideas.
Otherwise, it would be like hitting the gay rights, other person with eyes closed. Copyright Papers Education. We should see clearly what we are hitting and be prepared beforehand so that he cannot hit us back. We can do this by essays nature vs evil knowing what we are refuting. e.g . X Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education; however, they are wrong . Research. ( what they say is not wrong. Maybe their supporting idea is wrong /irrelevant /insufficient. We should state their supporting idea specifically to gay rights, be able to refute it.) #8730; Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education because they are not physically and psychologically mature enough to copyright papers education, cope with the problems of the real world. However, they forget one fact: adolescents can vote or start driving at gay rights research essay the age of papers education, 18 (in some countries even before that age!), which proves that they are considered physically and psychologically mature at that age . Language : Signposts gain importance in the argumentative essay. They enable the academic reader, readers to follow our arguments easily. When pointing out opposing arguments ( CONs ): Opponents of this idea claim / maintain that … Those who disagree / are against these ideas may say / assert that … Some people may disagree with this idea.
When stating specifically why they think like that : The put forward this idea because … They claim that … since … Reaching the turning point : On the other hand , When refuting the copyright research, opposing idea, we may use the following strategies : compromise but prove that their argument is not powerful enough: They have a point in thinking like that. To a certain extent they are right. After seeing this evidence, there is no way we can agree with what they say . say that their argument is irrelevant to the topic: What we are discussing here is not what they are trying to prove. Essay Items. Their argument is research education irrelevant. HEALTH AND HEALING AT YOUR FINGERTIPS. Throw out the bottles and writing essay boxes of drugs in your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at least come as good news to people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine. Copyright Papers Education. However, it is a blow to the medicine industry, and an even bigger blow to writing, our confidence in papers education the progress of academic writing reader (custom), science.
This new theory argues that healing is at research papers education our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Reiki on a regular basis. Supporters of medical treatment argue that medicine should be trusted since it is effective and scientifically proven. They say that there is no need for mla format of essay, spiritual methods such as Reiki, Yoga, Tai Chi. These waste our time, something which is quite precious in our material world. There is medicine that can kill our pain, x-rays that show us our fractured bones or MRI that scans our brain for tumors. We must admit that these methods are very effective in the examples that they provide. However, there are some “every day complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Aspirin, or Vermidon , when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of these. When you use these pills for a long period, you become addicted to them; you cannot sleep without them.
We pay huge amounts of money and become addicted instead of getting better. How about a safer and copyright papers more economical way of healing? When doing Reiki to yourself, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. As for its history, it was discovered in gay rights research essay Japan in copyright the early 1900s and its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and Western Europe . In quantum physics, energy is recognized as the fundamental substance of which the universe is composed. Reiki depends on the energy within our bodies. It is a simple and effective way of restoring the energy flow. There are no side effects and writing items it is scientifically explained. Opponents of copyright papers education, alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without drugs. They think so because these patients spend the rest of essay items, their lives in the hospital taking medicine. How can Reiki make these people healthy again? It is very unfortunate that these patients have to live in copyright research papers education the hospital losing their hair because of essays on human good, chemotherapy, losing weight because of the side effects of the medicine they take.
Actually, it is common knowledge that except for when the copyright research, cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, drugs also cannot treat AIDS or cancer. Items. Most of the medicine these patients use are to ease their pain and their sufferings because of the medical treatment they undergo. Instead of copyright papers, drugs which are expensive and have many side effects, you can use your energy to overcome the gay rights, hardships of copyright education, life, find an writing emotional balance, leave the copyright papers, stress of everyday life and let go of the items, everyday worries. Copyright Research. Most of the chronic conditions such as eczema or migraine are known to dissertation, have causes such as poor diet and stress. Copyright Papers. Deep-rooted anger or other strong emotions can contribute to viral infections as well. Of Essay. Since balancing our emotions and research papers education controlling our thoughts are very important for our well-being, we should definitely start learning Reiki and avoid illnesses before it is too late. Some people may still maintain that in our material world, everything depends on time. It is even “lacking time” that causes much of the writing essay items, stress that leads to the illnesses we mentioned. How would it be possible to find time to do Reiki to copyright papers, ourselves and the people around us when we cannot even find time to go to the theater?
This is one good thing about Reiki; it does not require more than 15 minutes of our time. There is no need for essays nature vs evil, changing clothes or special equipment. It is a wonderfully simple healing art, an effective method of relaxation and copyright research papers stress-relief. Most important of all, it is less time consuming than medicine if we think of all the time we spend taking medicine for some complaints and taking some more for the side effects as well. Knowledge. Having said these, resistance to research education, Reiki would be quite illogical.
Reiki is natural and drug-free. What is more, it is easy to learn by anyone, regardless of age and experience. Of Essay. It can be used anywhere, anytime. It also enhances physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being and the benefits last a lifetime. Copyright Research. It is definitely high time to get away from the drug boxes we store in our drug cabinet!
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Copyright laws important research papers education, Essay Writing
LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the copyright research, game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the “A” essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in place for writing reader (custom) (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. Copyright Education! A law student learns—finally—to learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer.
I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the writing (custom), law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams. Papers! This program was exactly what I needed €” the tools to confidently tackle exams in academic a methodical way. — Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan €” i.e., the copyright papers, steps €” keeps you from worrying about panic. €” Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an (custom) example of LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. Research Papers! (You are basically asked to identify and research analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into copyright papers education the exam with you (save the on human vs evil, code in a course based on a code of copyright research papers, rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in dissertation knowledge civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids.
Open or closed book, the law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and research education limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on academic reader (custom), law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer.
Following are models of the LEEWS approach to papers, breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you. You may want to attempt a response before looking at of essay the models. Copyright! Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to essay, identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to analyze as a lawyer; and you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of papers education, interest to a judge or lawyer.
You must then resolve those issues, bringing to writing (custom), bear relevant law and the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on copyright research education, final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor.
Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. Dissertation Knowledge! As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the research papers education, most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Essay! Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to be in education the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into dissertation the club owner, Jett Setter.
He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the copyright papers, most graceful move in du travail dissertation the world. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the research papers education, club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. Essays On Human Nature Good! (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in papers New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the mla format, following events and education motions: 1 €” OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 €” Attempts to serve Setter personally at essays nature vs evil his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of his home.
Another was mailed to copyright research, him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 €” Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an nature vs evil appeal did he assert lack of papers, personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 €” OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 €” OFU, Inc. (custom)! requested an admission from research Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 €” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on writing items, the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Research! Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the mla format of essay, issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies.
RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) €” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses €” A confidential communication between husband and wife is education, privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper).
Personal Jurisdiction €” Generally, in order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in et croissance dissertation the state where an research education action is brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and writing reader (custom) also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of €” Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the research papers, defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission €” A request for du travail dissertation admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and copyright papers that should not be necessary to prove at trial. The party served normally has 30 days to respond.
Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against research essay, traffic on copyright research papers education, a one-way street). However, it is du travail et croissance, not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata €” Doctrine that for papers reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and mla format avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the copyright research, relitigation of writing essay items, claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion €” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of copyright papers, a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue €” Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of essay, venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL.
(1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview €” Six distinct events/motions. Copyright Research! Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to proceed. Of Essay! [Always the Steps, always the Steps €” a constant way of thinking.] Step One €” [Conflict pairings and research party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for academic (custom) all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on papers, the other.
However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the dissertation, objectives that count for purposes of copyright research papers, generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to dissertation, keep the litigation going versus termination on research papers, a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. exists and viable.
4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and items be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to all six, from this point on copyright research papers education, I shall work on each question to knowledge, completion before going on to the next .]
Step Two €” [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides.
5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three €” [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to research papers, be but one or two premises to essays nature vs evil, be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on research, each exclusive of the others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is mla format, necessary to copyright research, state all of the academic writing, law to begin the first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and education guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose.
Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the dissertation, action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in copyright research education New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the action in New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of essay items, law to research education, relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on academic (custom), a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. Copyright Education! [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at academic (custom) a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the copyright research, defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at essay items the place of copyright research, business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of nature, business. [Analysis.]
Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of papers education, personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of essay, personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Research Papers Education! Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the du travail, time for raising the claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is research papers, not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and mla format of essay wife are privileged from research education disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for mla format of essay its truth, as well as an research indication of Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.]
Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to mla format of essay, prove at trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to copyright research papers education, drive is essays nature good vs evil, negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an abstract statement of law.
Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of copyright research papers education, a claim or cause of essays on human vs evil, action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and copyright research education sets forth the essay, same cause of action as the one dismissed in research papers education the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in mla format 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for copyright papers education the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and on human nature good invincible in research papers education their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found.
The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on the board of et croissance, directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at copyright papers education the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to writing essay, inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. Copyright Papers Education! When she refused to accede to the demand of the mla format of essay, Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the education, inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to knowledge, the books and records to papers education, persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to et croissance, Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on research education, behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and research essay records, to block the ski resort venture as an copyright research ultra vires act, and for repayment by mla format of essay, the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the copyright, pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of reader (custom), directors, and failure to state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the papers education, suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for of essay indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to copyright research, provide for same.
Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the dissertation, court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts €” Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and copyright education sometimes includes acts within the purposes and powers of the organisation du travail et croissance dissertation, corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Research Education! Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights €” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and writing essay statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is papers education, proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on gay rights, demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the copyright papers education, demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action €” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to mla format, enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on copyright research papers education, behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to items, the corporation occurred; and 3) the copyright research papers, plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the essays vs evil, demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Note that in order to copyright papers, minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to mla format, post security for costs, unless 1) the research papers, plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares; or 2) the value of their shares exceeds $50,000.
Indemnification €” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against writing, him in copyright research education a direct action by on human nature, the corporation, or a derivative action on copyright papers, behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. Academic Writing! The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on education, the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. Gay Rights! [Note the enormous benefit here of copyright research, skipping over the facts.]
Step One €” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the items, motions in education conjunction with the sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. Of Essay! v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and research the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon gay rights, resolution of the copyright research papers, motions.]
1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two €” [RIPCORP is movant for organisation du travail et croissance motions 1 and copyright papers 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of dissertation knowledge, Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in research the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to of essay, state a cause of action respecting each of copyright education, Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond.
3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of mla format of essay, directors in research papers education such a suit. Step Three €” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Organisation Du Travail! Given the complexity of the education, relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to items, skip Step Three and go to copyright papers, the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No reason apparent for mla format not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of research, action.
Generally, a shareholder may sue the on human vs evil, corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation. Research Education! Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of mla format of essay, five percent of any class of outstanding shares.
M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the copyright research education, initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts €” acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and mla format of essay powers of the copyright research, corporation, but performed in knowledge an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for copyright research education maintaining a derivative action is that the dissertation knowledge, plaintiff demand that the board commence the papers, action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in mla format of essay order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of any class of outstanding shares, or the value of copyright papers, their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering.
Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of organisation et croissance, one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Research! Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the on human nature good, corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for research papers education a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof.
The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of essays on human nature vs evil, defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in copyright research education part derivative on behalf of organisation du travail dissertation, RIPCORP, and copyright papers education a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the academic writing, resolution indemnifies against expenses of research papers, defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of writing, their duty to act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in papers a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to dissertation knowledge, take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to copyright research papers education, my friend, X.
Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to items, my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of research papers, my estate to dissertation, my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the copyright research papers, codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of essay items, his mind when he executed the 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to copyright research papers education, a syndicate in 1997 for mla format of essay $200,000.
3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption €” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in copyright papers existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing.
Death of mla format of essay, a beneficiary €” A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate €” Shall be in copyright accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will €” A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication €” A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. Revocation €” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by implication. Organisation Du Travail Dissertation! A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction.
Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for copyright papers the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy €” A bequest of gay rights research essay, a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by the legatee as and research papers education where he finds it. Testamentary capacity €” Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in gay rights research executing a will or other document, accurately recites the research education, nature and extent of his property, and gay rights research recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary €” A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in research education probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL.
Preliminary Overview €” The instruction points to parties who stand to take from of essay T's estate. Each will be in copyright research papers education opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One €” X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two €” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Dissertation Knowledge! Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play.
However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to papers education, sort them out at this point. Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Gay Rights Research Essay! Possibly there will be overlap of copyright research education, premises/discussion.] Step Three €” [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to dissertation knowledge, take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion €” Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step.
Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to papers education, make sense. B and Z's rights [This label conforms to du travail dissertation, the instruction. B v. Z might confuse. Copyright! But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. Research Essay! The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the copyright papers, properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will.
There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the codicil accurately recited the essays on human nature good vs evil, nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in research papers education making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of mla format of essay, revoking the will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and copyright research papers education remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the organisation du travail dissertation, same or similar nature) is research papers education, not in existence or not in the possession of the organisation et croissance dissertation, testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to copyright papers, T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is essays nature vs evil, of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed.
A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Papers Education! Such surviving issue will take the writing, legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.
S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to education, take under the will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in dissertation having the will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to copyright papers, take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and du travail et croissance therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary.
However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and copyright research papers education garner an A. Knowledge! Possibly it should be highlighted in copyright research papers some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to on human good vs evil, put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per copyright papers, stirpes . Essay! S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the copyright papers education, several witnesses to the will exist to gay rights research essay, prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and model response sent to us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by copyright research, their professors. Knowledge! Richard ordered the research papers, audio CD version of LEEWS. Writing! His is the copyright papers education, verbatim model response offered to organisation du travail et croissance dissertation, students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades.
His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. Research! . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to organisation du travail et croissance, proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on research papers education, the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at essays nature vs evil the end. LEEWS posits that in education general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6]
Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above.
F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to of essay, the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on this examination, be sure that you have an education examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for organisation written analysis. Part II consists of copyright papers, 35 multiple choice questions.
If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. Du Travail Dissertation! You may not, of course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.).
When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the copyright research education, pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and du travail et croissance spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by copyright papers education, number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for mla format Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in copyright papers education the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in.
You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the dissertation knowledge, correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the papers education, following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the person€™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by items, an act or omission in copyright education this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the writing, person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of contracting. X.C.A. § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and copyright research education a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points.
They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an knowledge associate attorney in a law firm. Papers! Respond fully to the following memorandum from mla format of essay one of your employers. €śI Quit€ť is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Copyright Research! Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006.
[Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in dissertation knowledge the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Copyright Research Education! Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into dissertation knowledge an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [€śFirst Commercial€ť] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the bank€™s services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the copyright, loan papers at their shop and nature Tristan immediately took them to First Commercial€™s main office, located ten miles away in the State of education, Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000.
The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to dissertation, sue them, Tristan settled the bank€™s claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the copyright papers education, unpaid principal and interest. First Commercial€™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at of essay the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for education the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in gay rights research essay a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of research, her customers there.
[Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. On Human Nature Good! Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde.
Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia.
Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in papers Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for dissertation the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on papers, Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a student€™s essay that received a top grade. Commentary by et croissance dissertation, Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an education abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Of Essay! Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Copyright Education! Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. The federal courts are courts of writing, limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the research education, US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute.
First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. Writing Essay Items! First Commercial is a citizen of copyright research papers education, Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in (custom) Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the papers education, suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for essay items more than one month, but not the two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of copyright research papers, 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to see €śif she would enjoy€ť life on her own. If Isolde is found to dissertation knowledge, be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is education, not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction.
However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under €śfederal question€ť jurisdiction because breach of mla format of essay, contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in copyright research papers education the plaintiff€™s complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States.
Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in of essay Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on copyright, collateral attack in the enforcing court. Knowledge! [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the papers education, facts to du travail, support your analysis. Copyright! The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in essay the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over copyright papers her in Prussia. N.B.
The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the writing essay items, District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the copyright research papers, same as a consent provision. Gay Rights! [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to copyright research, it as a forum selection clause in part of the answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of essays on human vs evil, law provision. Mistakes of research, this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a person€™s demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Others simply didn€™t know what to do with the organisation du travail dissertation, fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on copyright papers education, the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: €śa) transacting any business within the State.€ť The claim for essays nature vs evil relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendant€™s act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristan€™s delivery of the loan documents to the Bank€™s main office in copyright research education Prussia.
Isolde will counter that her act was signing the good vs evil, documents, which took place at the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the statute reaches the out of copyright papers education, state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the essays nature good, execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the research papers, facts of this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state €śdirectly or by an agent.€ť Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is writing, simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didn€™t know what she was signing.
Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in copyright papers International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the mla format, cause of education, action arises from the defendant€™s minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of essay items, jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the copyright, Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the mla format, constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the copyright research, contact which gives rise to the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to research essay, secure the copyright research, loan.
They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and essays on human good vs evil she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the copyright research papers education, alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining €śfair play and substantial justice,€ť articulated in the US Supreme Court€™s Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of gay rights research, First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to copyright papers, a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the choice of organisation du travail dissertation, law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws.
The interest of the several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to copyright research, enter the writing essay, picture, so the fairness factors do not point to copyright, Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction. [Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of dissertation, process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of copyright research education, knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place.
Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on papers, it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the knowledge perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to research education highlight only the accomplishments and writing essay items skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . Copyright Papers! 2. But Keep a Master List of writing reader (custom), All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Copyright Education! Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume.
This top section is what the hiring manager is going to essays on human nature see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on papers education, putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . Et Croissance Dissertation! According to Zhang , the only occasion when an copyright research education objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the research essay get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. Papers! In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for gay rights research you —or just nix it altogether to copyright research save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to dissertation organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is education, still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in essays on human nature good vs evil your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is research papers, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the dissertation information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is papers, a good way to mla format of essay force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to copyright research papers education showcase on on human nature, more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in copyright research less space?
Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to mla format of essay see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out research education, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to essay be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to research education have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into writing essay items, what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in research papers a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and organisation du travail et croissance 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.
You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for papers education the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Research! If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and copyright education whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to on human add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop.
No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in papers the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to organisation et croissance make sure to research education include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible.
These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of dissertation, your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the research experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying.
And remember to knowledge allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into copyright education, more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to dissertation knowledge pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for copyright education the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in gay rights research a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . Copyright Education! You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person.
Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and mla format of essay numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by copyright research papers education your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the on human good vs evil hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them.
Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to copyright adding more to mla format of essay your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to copyright research papers education your boss or your company. Academic Reader (custom)! By doing this, you clearly communicate not only papers what you’re capable of, but also the essay items direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into research papers, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. On Human Nature! Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.
There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is copyright research papers, this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in essays on human vs evil applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include?
Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. Papers Education! What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to organisation du travail et croissance describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of copyright research papers, jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.
Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the essays nature vs evil most recent or advanced degree first, working in copyright papers education reverse chronological order. On Human Vs Evil! But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.
While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at research papers your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in gay rights essay your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out copyright papers education, all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to gay rights essay skip including skills that everyone is copyright research papers education, expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word.
Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and essay items listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and education detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only essay items add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company?
Don’t even think about research it. 32. Beware of dissertation, Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to papers weigh the decision of mla format, whether to copyright papers education include them or not. Do include awards and academic writing reader accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in research papers education a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the good vs evil proper ways to education include them.
Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. Writing Items! If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to papers education The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about on human nature your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and copyright education end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at dissertation your earlier positions.
If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for copyright education leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to mla format of essay new city.” By addressing the research papers education gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an academic reader issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and copyright papers accomplishments. Then, get into gay rights, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Research Papers! See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Writing! Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on papers, your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to essay raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and education intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously.
39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for essays on human good references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on copyright papers, spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on essay items, his or her computer.
To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in education both Google Docs and on human nature Word, and then attach it to copyright papers education an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the dissertation knowledge hiring manager has to research education take. Of Essay! Carve out education, some time every quarter or so to writing pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.
And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is papers education, passionate about mla format of essay elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and copyright research led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an mla format of essay individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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essay topics english You’ve spent quite a bit of time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and research papers education you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on gay rights essay, the topics your instructor assigns. Copyright Papers. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is relax and find a topic you’re passionate about gay rights essay, and, of copyright papers, course, one that is debatable.
Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Dissertation. Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all– argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points. Copyright Education. The world isn’t black and white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is essay items, good because that means there are a lot of topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started.
I’ve separated the topics into five categories–legal, moral, social, media and research education family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to use the topics for organisation du travail dissertation your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. Copyright Papers Education. These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You don’t have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to of essay, do your research on copyright research papers education, what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in the way you want. Should cigarettes and other tobacco products be outlawed?
Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of organisation du travail et croissance, medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the copyright research papers education United States put more restrictions on knowledge, gun ownership and copyright research use?
At what age should girls have access to writing, birth control without the consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics. Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the copyright research easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of moral dilemmas, from animal testing to the death penalty. These topics tend to research essay, be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for education those opinions–on what they think is right or wrong.
If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over. Essay Items. While it’s good to copyright research, be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by mla format of essay, John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor? Do patients have a right to research education, die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public?
Should schools and businesses give more incentives for research people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists? Does freedom of copyright research, speech give people the essay right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the research papers death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and items moral topics, but deal more about how individuals act within society and what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of copyright research education, people. This is gay rights, a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and even more that you could create on your own.
If you get stuck on which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to you. This should make writing about that topic come more naturally. Just be sure to copyright research education, rely on dissertation, facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in the United States?
Should more rights be given to immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to research papers education, curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to writing essay, vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics.
Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole. Research Papers Education. Essays written on these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to of essay, create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find. Just turn on a television and don’t change the channel when the commercials come on. Pay close attention to copyright papers, all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to find something debatable about what you see. Photo by Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons.
Should sex be allowed to be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about of essay, celebrities? Do journalists have a duty to copyright research papers education, eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for companies to organisation du travail et croissance, advertise in schools?
In what situations should advertisements for research papers education alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and research values are abundant.
That’s because every family is copyright education, different. Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to mla format, laws that govern a state or nation. Because each family is different, it’s hard to generalize in these types of essays. However, if you look into copyright research papers education research on child development and psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and gay rights research their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics. As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on this list). Papers Education. For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started.
Once you’re ready to come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in good vs evil mind that it’s much easier to copyright, write about something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about it. Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about du travail et croissance, what fascinates you, and papers if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to the Kibin editors. They’ll help give you the winning edge in whatever you’re debating. Psst. Dissertation. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. Education. You can find her on Google+.
Thank you for these! I appreciate that you divided the topics into writing essay type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about copyright papers education, anti immigrants. I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for the help. Hi Abdul–I’m not sure *who you’re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. Organisation Du Travail. A hook that makes the story of immigration a HUMAN story is papers education, a compelling story. Thank you for the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an of essay, example.
Is the research papers hook on writing, the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the first sentence of research education, your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and essays on human vs evil I have NOOO idea what to do it on can u help? Btw I’m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya– so I think the important thing would be to choose a topic that you are actually interested in.
At 14, and sorry if I’m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the copyright research effects of video games on young people. Here is essays on human nature vs evil, a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I’m still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the copyright research papers opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I’m having a hard time choosing a new topic for my argumentative essay. I was writing on reader (custom), how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn’t help me on this and it was a hard topic to argue about. Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in our near public places (look at research education, laws in California and Colorado for essays nature example). I need to write an argumentative research paper about 3000 words.
Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the copyright research papers 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about. My biggest piece of advice is definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. On Human Good. Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day life–maybe you can turn one of research education, those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, here’s a good post on vs evil, making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I’m sorry to hear that. Maybe you’ll find this post to be helpful in your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to do that.
I need to write 3 essays and I 5 days to do it need HELP and I’m 15. Hi Dyson–eep that’s a lot of copyright research papers education, essays in a short amount of items, time. You’re going to want to stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for papers that it really helps me. You’re welcome. Mla Format. Thanks for copyright papers education reading! Hi, I was hoping to get some advice on et croissance dissertation, an argumentative essay.
My argument is broad and copyright research papers about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only dissertation have 2 days to write a 6 page essay. Do you have any tips or advice to papers education, help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to gay rights research essay, write 7-10 page argumentive essay and i don’t have any idea can you help me what is it good to write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa. Do you need any help with your homework?
I am available for help and papers I will be glad to help. Contact me for gay rights research non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and copyright education always on on human good, time. Copyright Papers Education. Thank you in gay rights advance. I have to right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to be arguable…. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to papers education, something good. The trick is to nature vs evil, choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to research, possibly even *enjoy the process of academic, researching and writing. Remember, an research, arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side). This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the academic reader (custom) same thing i’m going thru for english 202.
It has to end up being 7 to 8 pages and it has to papers education, be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough. Don’t despair. You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi.
I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for gay rights research a 3000 word research paper on the following ” Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and research multilingualism” . Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. Mla Format. Thank you #128578; A basic framework for copyright papers your thesis statement will outline the points that you want to organisation du travail et croissance dissertation, defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to research papers, discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and mla format of essay 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here.
Once you have the copyright research papers points you want to defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi Naomi. Gay Rights Research. I have started writing the paper. Research Education. However, I am having difficulties with the on human vs evil organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and copyright research education give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. It’s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. Writing (custom). While I can’t do this for copyright research papers education you (not enough time in essays on human good my schedule), you have come to the right place. Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more.
You can learn more about copyright education, that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. but trust me, it can be worse… Good luck on research, your writing though!–I’m sure you need it more than me… i have to do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an essay to seem longer, highlight all the periods, and research papers education change the font size from 12 to 14. I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true! If you’re armed with plenty of sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it’s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the basic steps you need to take to execute an argumentative essay:
1) pick your topic–this post is dissertation, a good place to start. 2) do your research–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statement–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an copyright research papers, outline–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paper–https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper –https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and academic length of your paper). Hey, i Have to submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and so far I’ve written only 200.
Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like “tomorrow afternoon” has arrived. I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. This makes me think of research papers education, Walt Disney and et croissance how all of copyright papers education, his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and organisation du travail dissertation others), and how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws. That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for copyright this. hi Naomi, me and my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses.
I’m studying entrepreneurship and she is studying computer science. Et Croissance. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an idea on what will be our topic. Research Education. please help us for we are desperate. we would be so thankful if you’l help us a little bit. I’m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is related to both computer science and research essay entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the question I’m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. You two would do well to sit down and brainstorm a list of potential ideas and research education then do some preliminary research to see if you can find information to support your project.
For example, my initial brainstorm of topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I’d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to writing items, find out if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper.
For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because “computer science” and “entrepreneurship” or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. You might find this post helpful for copyright research education you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and writing essay also helped me a lot for my project….but i am currently writing a novel and i need some pointers for copyright papers education it…..would you be able to help. The novel is gay rights research, a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson… Congrats on copyright papers education, starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it. You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it’s coming out as you want it to, but if you’re serious about this, you’ll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. Academic Reader. In fact it won’t be perfect.
It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to research education, be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for nature good vs evil every day, and every week. A final novel is about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It’s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and copyright papers revise it… again and again until it’s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and writing i didnt know what topic I can choose. But thank you for research this, it gave me an idea. I’m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading. Naomi help me please? i’am looking for et croissance the disadvantages of copyright papers, a physical store and found only vs evil minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight.
Do you mean the disadvantages of copyright research papers education, shopping at gay rights research essay, a physical store or of owning one? I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of my head: – Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and copyright research papers tear on your car). – There is a higher risk that the store will be out of the item you need (or won’t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to limited inventory. – Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. Mla Format. this is such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for education reading #128578; I think any of the dissertation knowledge topics listed here could be pretty amazing — just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons.
Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on how to research papers education, get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is a good long while. I’d definitely break it down into lots of essay, smaller steps that you can attack a little at copyright education, a time — brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I’d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an long af essay and organisation english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for copyright papers education some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else.
Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me. The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I’m need to writing, write a thesis for my uni’s project this year. Copyright Education. But, I’m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I’m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, “Students’ perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.” *NDUM is my university, so I want to on human good vs evil, know how this integrity give an copyright papers, effect to the students, in the way of education. I think you’re off to organisation dissertation, a good start, but you still need to take a stance on your topic.
Here is an example of research, what I mean: “Students’ perception of integrity, which is one of NDUM’s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in education.” In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: “Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of NDUM’s core characteristics, tend to be more successful in of essay their educational endeavors.” I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit! Hello everyone? I am an online tutor. I do a wider array of assignments from essays, projects and research papers. I produce quality and original papers that are payable after receiving the assignments. All the assignments are done in 12-24 hours.
Be free to inquire more. Email: [emailprotected] . I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don’t know specifically what to copyright research education, write about writing essay items, because the topic itself is so broad. Copyright Research Papers. Can someone give ma an research essay, advice on this? I’m writing a 10-12 page essay about research papers education, mental health. Essay Items. I don’t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an copyright, advice on this?
You’re right that “mental health” is academic reader, a really broad topic. If you’re writing an copyright research education, argumentative essay, you need to come up with an approach/stance that’s a) debatable and b)provable. Here are a few examples of possible approaches: – Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives. – Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in favor of/against. – Does the mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for essays on human nature vs evil how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on government should increse the fundings.
Now I’m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That’s a long one, but you can totally do it.
Just make sure to research papers education, organize your ideas before you start. Items. You might want to check out copyright research papers https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you’re making and how much evidence you use to back them up. Much respect for your decision to go back to school! What an awesome example you’re setting for writing your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. I’m obviously biased, but they’re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of autism. Off the top of my head:
1. Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability. For instance, some suggest that it’s simply a type of neurodiversity and should not be treated as something “wrong,” just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and parents have considered too. 3. Argue that Asperger’s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.