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Art of Love by Erich Fromm Essay examples. Kellogg Mba Essays. Grand Canyon University. What is the Art of Love by Erich Fromm. After reading the first chapter the author is 2010 very adamant in the fact that love is not something that you just “fall in to” it is much deeper than that. Kellogg Mba Essays. People know that love is cheats important and they actually starve for kellogg mba essays, it. Problem is that woman and men try to make themselves more attractive by cultivating their body in order to become more lovable, instead of concentrating on how to love. Fromm speaks about real love being a sentiment that cannot be easily indulged by just anyone; it is loving someone through humility, faith, discipline and online courage.
The Art of best kellogg Loving demonstrates that there are four basic elements of love and they include; care, responsibility, respect and knowledge (p.8). Suicide. Each of these can be interpreted differently depending on each person, their relationship and circumstances. Love will be the hardest thing one has ever done, but on the same hand the best mba essays most rewarding. Fromm mentions the george orwell language concept of self-love. In his words loving your self does not mean being conceited, arrogant or egocentric. It actually means to care for yourself, take responsibility for your actions, taking the time to get to know yourself and being honest with yourself. If you want someone else to love you, or even you to truly love someone you must be able to love yourself in this way. Fromm states that one cannot love another person whole heartedly if he does not love mankind or themselves. Theory of love based on kellogg, the Art of Loving; While we find love, or rather the music equivalent of love, in animals, their attachments are mainly a part of best their instinctual equipment; only remnants of this instinctual equipment ca be seen operating in man.
Love is the answer to the problem of human existence (p.9). Chapter 2 review. The love between a mother and a child is an unbreakable bond from birth (p.23) it is the feeling of dying, separation of anxiety from the mother. To the child the mother means warmth, food and the euphoric feeling of satisfaction and safety. A mother has an internal bond that separates the love between that of a father.
A mother requires the child to do nothing in order to factor in research gain her love. Kellogg. The child is loved at birth for music essay, doing nothing; a mother’s love is unconditional and has no stipulations. A love from a mother does not need to be deserved, acquired, produced or controlled. If you have the love of kellogg your mother you have the 2010 ap world history essays biggest blessing of kellogg all, if you are lacking the love of a mother Fromm mentions that “ it is online research reports as if all beauty had gone out of life-and there is nothing I can do to create it” (p.24) The relationship to a father is quite different to kellogg that of a mother. Mother is where we come. Related Documents: Art of thesis suicide Love by Erich Fromm Essay examples. What is Love Love is a very strong word, very powerful word. Kellogg Mba Essays. What is Love? Do we define love as our heart, that we as human beings long to be with our so called soul mate. There are many different forms of what we called love. There is love all around us and we don#x27;t know it, it#x27;s in 2010 our parents, our friends, our teachers, and best mba essays even the people who are who are homeless.
We love as a community, as friends, as family, and as partners. As a community we love simply by caring and factor paper we share what we. Words 484 - Pages 2. Psycology: Marriage and mba essays Erich Fromm Essay. Factor Analysis In Research Paper. My references for today’s topic include an article from the January issue of UU World entitled “Time to Commit,” by William Doherty. I also referred extensively to The Art of Loving, by Erich Fromm, and Love and Awakening, by John Welwood. Since our theme for the year is the kellogg ethics and george orwell essay spirituality of best kellogg mba essays human relationships I thought it would be appropriate to include this topic. As I have stated before, I don’t want to george orwell create the impression that I feel I possess some superior skill in mba essays this area. Words 497 - Pages 2. Essay Encyclop?dia Britannica and Erich Maria Remarque. “some of the world#x27;s poorest countries have suffered the most from the country essay economic losses of war.” (Defense 2). These countries have been killed by war and kellogg mba essays have ultimately taking money away from the people.
Some of these people really need the money as this takes “more than 10 percent of the research reports country#x27;s GDP.” (Defense 6). The poor people suffer the most out of everyone seeing as government expenditures. In many low-income countries, these expenditures often exceed 20–30 percent” (Defense 6). War. Words 429 - Pages 2. an athlete and there muscle tone, that could be art to some of us. There are eight different types of art painting, sculpture, architecture, photography, print making, conceptual art, installation art, and performance art. The Mona Lisa painting is the most famous painting in mba essays the world of all times. By: Leonardo da Vinci.
This painting depicts Lisa Del Giocondo whose expression is well-known for the enigmatic aura emanating from it. The sculpture is unnamed and cheats is often referred to best mba essays as the. Words 820 - Pages 4. Essay on World War I and Erich Maria Remarque. , when he sees his parents and his past for the first time since going to the front. There he encounters strange feelings of isolation, rejection, and instability that he had never imagined could exist in a place so familiar. In Erich Maria Remarque#x27;s All Quiet on the Western Front, Paul#x27;s changing relationships with his mother and father spur on his gradual realization that he can never return to the life that once meant everything to him. Affected by his mother#x27;s illness, innocence, and. Words 1866 - Pages 8. History: World War I and Erich Maria Remarque Essay. All Quite on the Western Front: A Casualty of Love War does not determine who is right, only who is left.
In the novel, All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque, Paul Baumer contemplates over why men of million are sent to fight out a dispute that originated between just two. In the story, a young Paul Baumer is sent to fight in World War I on the Western Front against Russia. During his service Paul and the friends he has in the Second Company are put through many. Words 611 - Pages 3. ?JianAn Luo Youngblood English 28 03/06/2014 Personal Statement I am Luo Jian An, born in 1993 in Guangzhou China. I am majoring Art in my college, and I am here to write this letter for on physician, pursuing advanced art studies in the University of California. I believe those studies are indispensable for my future career development and will benefit me for my art studies. I chose art as my intended major because I love art and beauty. Kellogg. Art is everywhere in my life. I studied art in analysis my country. Art.
Words 1008 - Pages 5. I met you in best the summer (Summer) (Hey) (La La) (Hey) Summer (Summer) (Hey) (La La) (Hey) Wild Wild Love (feat. Factor In Research. G.R.L.) [Hook: GRL] All this wild wild love of ours It can#x27;t be tamed, no All this wild wild love of ours It can#x27;t be tamed, no For better or worse A blessing or a curse Long live this wild wild love of mba essays ours Long live this wild wild love [Verse 1: Pitbull] Ladies and gentleman You#x27;re looking at music essay the new playboy Who you? That#x27;s right, Armando. Words 1398 - Pages 6. ?Rebecca Lopez CLSCS 300 M/W 3:30-4:45 Essay 2: The Art of Love Ovid’s “The Art of Love” is best kellogg perhaps one of the first documented “dating self-help” works of literature to be published. The poem is broken down into three sections in george on political language which Ovid communicates to men how to find a woman, how to keep her nonce she is mba essays found, and finally, how women can find and history exam essays keep the love of a man. From a woman’s perspective, I would guess that some, if not most, of the methods and techniques mentioned by Ovid are. Words 959 - Pages 4. Art: Love and Brooklyn Drecksel P .1 Essay. Best Kellogg Mba Essays. somewhat blend into each other throughout the picture; the right side blooming with bright colors in which are placed upon the trees and analysis pouring a cheerful happy tone, and the other filled with mystery and a loneliness portraying a tree blackened by the night with only a river by its side and few lights to display the saddening tone to which the tree gives off. The artist intended to build a story of everlasting love. The two people journey throughout life holding onto each other betwixt by the joy. Words 466 - Pages 2. * Test names and best kellogg other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are affiliated with this website.
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Oracle financials consultant with 6.9 years exp Resume. India-Bangalore (will consider relocating) I was associated with Capgemini India (a part of Capgemini Group, Oracle Platinum Partner) as Oracle R12 FMS Functional Consultant Conversant with Oracle R12 Financials as well experience in best mba essays providing functional solutions in george orwell language Oracle Applications and skilled in suggesting appropriate as well as technology-based solutions for enhancing functional efficiency of the organization and achieving business excellence. Deft at carrying out 3 end to end implementation and one rollout and one upgrade with ensured completion according to AIM. I am skilled in working with the cross-culture project and mapping business processes, gap analysis and development of specifications for configuration. Expert at handling configuration set-up, functionality design and user support for OracleR12 FMS consists of GL, AP, CM, FA and AR modules plus of SLA and eBT.
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? Team up with functional team and customer's staff and produce desirable results. ? Building standard user guide for the training for cheats to writing modules. Capgemini is headquartered in Paris, France and operates in best 40 countries. We are, above all, a people company--around 110,000 people in North America, Europe, South America and the Asia Pacific region. 01 July 2011 to 31 July 2011, Oracle R12 FMS Support for 2010 ap world history exam Oracle Financials for GMDC (Gujarat Minerals and best, Development Corporation) as Functional Lead Consultant; Core public sector authority for Mining and mineral research activities in Gujarat State. Team Size: 9; Tools Environment: OracleR12 Apps (12.1.2) AP, AR, GL, Ce, FA, PO, INV, HRMS Core, OLM, Payroll, Oracle Manufacturing, EAM, Oracle RDBMS 11g, IBM AIA-X. ? Managing a team for functional support of Oracle Financials (GL, AP, CM FA modules). ? Overseeing the Training and suicide, support of Oracle GL, AP, FA, CE AR Modules, resolution of issues logged in by the end users; updating the best mba essays, online issue database. ? Developed customized solution for clients (MD.050). ? Coordinating with business users functional team members for the functional requirement.
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? Skilfully coordinated the daily development activities among team members. I've 18 months experience in implementation and support of India localization with 11i. I've implemented TDS, Service Tax and in research paper, Excise. • Identify current Tax structure, implemented India localizations as per specification. • India Localization and defining the Organization structure of the client in kellogg mba essays OA. • Explain the process and Functionality of the application to the necessary people. • Setup and maintain the Tax, Codes, precedence and Thresholds in India Localization.
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Leading construction engineering MNC engaged in projects across the globe, in sectors like roads highways, buildings, industrial infrastructure, oil, gas and analysis, refinery, airport infrastructure, etc. Team Size: 7; Tools Environment: Oracle11i Apps (126.96.36.199), AP, FA, GL, Ce, Oracle RDBMS 10g, Windows NT. ? Managing a team for functional implementation of best mba essays Oracle Financials (GL, AP, CM FA modules) with India Localization across the organization. ? Configuring modules; designing reports and add-ons; coordinating with Technical Team in order to monitor development and implementation progress according methodology. ? Implementing AIM methodology for implementations support; facilitating end-user training creating user manuals. ? Experience of managing experienced organizations resources with accounting skills. ? Taking care of the application system; supporting and providing support for end-users to capitalize application usage. ? Preparing the following: o Current financial and operating structure (RD.010) which deliverable is COA.
o Business requirements mapping (BRMs) for business KPI (BR.030). o BR.100; establishing set-ups of oracle general ledger/ oracle/ fixed asset/ cash management. o MD.050 for Create Financials Applications Functional Design for DSCL. ? Establishing as well as completing the general settings specific configuration related to company code, bank transaction codes; bank 'N' bank accounts, bank reconciliations in Oracle financial. ? Assessing the music essay, customer's business requirements and best mba essays, mapping it to country music essay, the application. ? Preparing project plan for implementing the Oracle Financials modules. ? Updates and involves the mba essays, Project Manager and to writing an essay, functional team leader on the progress of implementation of the best kellogg, assigned module and/or escalates issues faced during implementation to ensure prompt action.
? Acts as second line support to the customer. ? Conducts training to the end user on means of operating the cheats an essay, implemented system. ? Uploading data sheets with Dataloader and ADI. ? Conducting end user training sessions for best kellogg system users. ? Assists in obtaining the 2010 history exam essays, approved/signed “Final Acceptance Sheet” from the client on best kellogg, his/her own module(s) within the project. ? Coordinated with the ap world history, business users functional team members to get the functional requirement for further maintenance. ? Developed ad-hoc Journal reports using FSG based on the end user requirement. ? Standard General Ledger reports and Oracle Payables reports such as Trial Balance, Payment Register and best kellogg mba essays, Invoice Register using FSG as per the functional specification. ? Worked in Oracle11i Apps cash management modules to load, import and research reports, auto-reconcile the best kellogg, bank statement transaction against payments in Accounts Payable (AP). ? Assisted in finalization of year-end closing. Constructions Ltd., Gurgaon; Team Size: 7.
C C Constructions Limited incorporated in July 1996 by a group of professionals for infrastructure development. Cheats? Company is engaged in construction of best Highways, Airports and lying of Optic Fibre Cables and maintenance of Telecom Network. Team Size: 8; Tools Environment: Oracle11i Apps (11.5.9) AP, AR, GL, FA, Ce, Oracle RDBMS 10g, Windows NT. ? Provided support for management of the IT setup for 'Project: P- 3403, Investigation …… Valley Project, I.T., IMS, Central Office'. ? Assisted the online, project team in processing and testing data with the Material Testing Machine, and in deciphering the test results. ? Developed Forms for data entry, created users and generated reports.
? Managed the storage of data and took regular data backups. Oct '97 to Feb '00 Asia Foundations Constructions as Accounts Officer, (Windows95, MS-Office 97) I joined as an Accounts Assistant and best kellogg mba essays, became Accounts AM to holding multiple projects. • Responsible for the day to day functioning of the Accounts and Finance functions including MIS, Audit, Taxation, etc. • Responsible for the development and maintenance of all internal accounting controls to provide reasonable assurance that transactions are executed and recorded properly for project. • Taxation matters including both Direct Indirect tax including filing of returns and all other legal payments and documentation of the same. • Overall cash management including receivables, payables, and working capital. • Furnish financial information to management on an ongoing basis, as required. • Ensuring adherence of all clauses of factor in research various agreements entered into best with Vendors and Customers.
• Ensuring deduction and deposit of TDS, service tax and other statutory dues of the company. 1997 Diploma in Computer Science (PG Diploma) from Saurashtra University; Marks Secured- 47% 1995 B.Com. From Saurashtra University; Marks Secured- 43% You must be logged in and have a current resume access subscription. Login or Register »
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dave ross essays Investigations into The Antiquity of The Cross in Cygnus. Copyright 2000 by the author. (NOTE: The full text of this essay, complete with footnotes and illustrations, was published in Culture and Cosmos http://www.cultureandcosmos.org, v. Best? 4, no.2 (Autumn/Winter 2000). My thanks to the editor, Mr. Nicholas Campion, for his kind permission to reproduce the text of the article here. 2010 Exam? -dr) The Age of kellogg Exploration did indeed give rise to a great deal of innovation and experimentation in essay celestial cartography. New constellations had to best kellogg mba essays, be devised to make sense out of the relative chaos explorers encountered on such distant waters.
This was also that age of religious fervor stirred by the Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Europe. It should not be surprising then that a brief “biblicizing” movement arose among cartographers of the cheats to writing an essay early 17th century and it ‘s among these that we readily find explicit depictions of the Cross in Cygnus.* For Julius Schiller, whose Coelum Stellarum Christianum of 1628 offered a thoroughly Christianized portrait of the heavens, the stars of the Swan became “St. Helena with The Cross”, referring to the Emperor Constantine’s mother and her legendary discovery of the best kellogg wood of the “True Cross”. The figure of the cheats to writing Cross in Schiller’s maps is kellogg mba essays just where we would expect to research, find it. And, as I have already indicated, the best kellogg mba essays era he invokes by associating it with Helena may prove to essay language, be an best kellogg mba essays important clue for our investigation.
Another interesting example from this period is Wilhelm Schickard’s Astroscopium of 1623. This Lutheran pastor turned Hebrew scholar, mathematician, cartographer, printer, engineer and astronomer is best remembered in the annals of computing for the calculating engine he invented for his more famous friend, Johannes Kepler, to aid in the laborious task of computing ephemerides. His Astroscopium featured an innovative conic projection and was among the first modern style star maps to online research, plot the constellations as they naturally appear in best the sky. Factor? Reversed depictions were a convention passed down by early globe makers that was slavishly retained by cartographers of his day, including Schiller. Schickard was content to best mba essays, portray the otherwise pagan but familiar classical constellations. However, he assigned each an imaginative biblical reference corresponding in some way or other to its figure. Cygnus the Swan is overlaid with his Crux Christi, making explicit the dual recognition these stars have come to inspire.*
The works of both of these biblicizers were influenced by factor in research paper the great Johannes Bayer’s Uranometria of 1603. In the notes accompanying his map of the kellogg constellation Cygnus he comments how the an essay recognition of a Cross there had long been known among the best mba essays common folk.* Even so, my admittedly limited survey to date has searched back nearly a full millennium before encountering any similar reference to thesis on physician assisted, it. Such references must exist somewhere in the literatures of these earlier eras. That they seem to be so difficult to uncover may not be an entirely unexpected result, however. The Renaissance was marked by an obvious appreciation for the classical traditions of Greece and kellogg Rome. In astronomy this grew out of the recovery of those traditions that took place during the later part of the ap world history essays Middle Ages as a result of European contact with the mba essays Arabic world.* From the factor in research paper “House of Wisdom” founded by kellogg Caliph al-Ma’mun in the 9th century came translations of factor analysis in research paper Greek philosophy and science that would eventually revive the intellectual life of the best kellogg West. For the purposes of astronomy, not to mention astrology, the most influential texts of all proved to be Ptolemy’s Syntaxis , better known by its Arabic title, the Almagest . So, whatever constellations or asterisms may have been part of the common knowledge of the day, those described and discussed, in the literature most accessible to us today, were those of the classical tradition. However, as we press further back in time we do encounter clues to distinctly Christian ways of envisioning the heaven of stars above. Searching through the pages of R. H. Allen’s aging but still useful collection of starlore, a Cross reference is found under the constellation Delphinus, of all places.* The comment comes from the great Muslim historian and scientist of the 11th century, Abu Raihan Al-Biruni.
In his book The Chronology of Ancient Nations the section on the calendar of the Syrians contains a listing for Ayyar (May) 7th and a Feast of the Apparition of the Cross in Heaven. Although Al-Biruni opens his comments with a discussion of the Cross vision of music essay Constantine the Great, and then summarizes the legend of best Helena’s discovery of the relic of the True Cross, the vision commemorated on that day among Orthodox Christians is that of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, an event dated some several decades after the time of Constantine.* According to Cyril’s account the cross was seen “above holy Golgotha stretching out as far as the holy Mount of Olives.” Al-Biruni states, “Other Christians, who are not learned people, speak of the cross in the constellation of the Dolphin, which the Arabs call Ka`ud (riding camel). They say that at that time this cross in the Dolphin appeared opposite that place where Messiah had been crucified.”* In any case, the tantalizing reference leaves us wondering what these 11th century Syrian Christians may have made of nearby Cygnus, having found a cross in little Delphinus. A contemporary student of medieval European astronomy, Stephen McCluskey offers what appears to be the earliest clear reference to the Cross we have been pursuing.
In the pages of his Astronomies and Cultures in Early Medieval Europe he gives a summary of his earlier work in the journal ISIS regarding the late 6th century monastic writings of reports Gregory of Tours.* Gregory inherited rules for ordering monastery life which included the admonition found in John Cassian’s De institutis coenobiorum , written sometime after 420 AD, which urged that the night offices of prayer should be kept by carefully observing the stars rather than being left up to the sleepy whim of whomever had been assigned the task of waking his brothers.* Just how the kellogg mba essays stars were to be used in keeping time wasn’t described there, but Gregory’s work De cursu stellarum ( On The Course of The Stars ), written shortly after his consecration as bishop in 573, gives thorough instructions for how this should be done; by careful observations of the rise and progress through the sky of select stars and constellations. De cursu stellarum was an exercise in practical astronomy that McCluskey has studied as an important means by which vestiges of the classical astronomy of the Greeks and Romans was preserved during the Dark Ages. Gregory exemplifies a Christian culture that had rejected the pagan mythologies that lay behind the traditional constellations and dismissed the superstitions of the country music astrologers. His constellations are mostly Christianized depictions. A handful of surviving manuscripts of best kellogg mba essays De cursu feature illustrations intended to cheats to writing, help the monks learn to recognize the patterns discussed in the text. Best Mba Essays? It is here that we find the earliest clear reference to “The Greater Cross” among the stars of Cygnus flanked by an “Alfa” or “Lesser Cross” in Delphinus and an “Omega” in thesis on physician assisted Lyra.* A Cross flanked by the Alpha and Omega was a familiar theme in the Christian art of the Middle Ages, as McCluskey reminds us. Best Kellogg Mba Essays? Such familiarity would well serve the kind of orwell essay language instruction undertaken in Gregory’s manual.
Thus, the enigmatic reference of Al-Biruni concerning a cross in kellogg Delphinus finds a kind of corroboration among Gregory’s constellations. Certain Christians as early as the 6th century did indeed see a cross there and also recognized a “greater” one nearby. The Great and Lesser Crosses described in Gregory of Tours’ De cursu stellarum . Reports? Time: 11 pm local time on 10/27/592 from central France. (All charts were prepared using Voyager II, Carina Software, 1992-1993.) The impulse to kellogg, redraw the heavens as witnessed with the biblicizers of the 17th century is frequently described as originating with the writings of Bede the country essay Venerable in kellogg the 9th century,* but the example of reports Gregory’s manual is an obviously older antecedent. In fact, an essay by Jean Danielou, “The Twelve Apostles and the Zodiac,”* reveals how Jews, Christians and kellogg Gnostics all had been busy claiming and transforming celestial imagery for a very long time indeed, at least since the second century in the case of essay Christians. Schiller may have been the first to actually draw a zodiac made up of twelve disciples or apostles but the idea may go back as far as Genesis ch. 49 which, some interpreters allow, reveals zodiacal imagery in best kellogg its descriptions of the twelve tribes.* Hugo Rahner’s Greek Myth and Christian Mystery outlines the many ways early Christians sought to transform and appropriate cosmic symbols such as the Sun and in research paper moon in best kellogg support of the Gospel.* In the third century Hippolytus felt called to refute the research reports evident excesses of the sect he calls the Astrotheosophists and their weakly Christian mythic allegories.* Yet, by the late fourth century Bishop Zeno of Verona would risk preaching a “divine horoscope” for kellogg mba essays, the benefit of the newly baptized “children” under his care, for fear that their astrological curiosities might otherwise lead them astray.* However, the closest we come to something like the recognition we have been seeking, prior to the 6th century, seems to be reflections on Plato’s discussion in the Timaeus of the world-soul made manifest by thesis assisted the intersection of the kellogg two great circles of the astronomers, the “heavenly chi” formed where the ecliptic and celestial equator invisibly meet. Thesis Assisted Suicide? Rahner states that these otherwise invisible lines “become for the Christian eye a heavenly cross,” and that through Justin and Irenaus’ seminal doctrine of recapitulation a long meditation on the cosmic symbolism of the cross entered Christian tradition. Mba Essays? By the fourth century the converted astrologer Firmicus Maternus declares, “The sign of a wooden cross holds the machine of the firmament together, strengthens the foundations of the earth, and research leads those that cling to it towards life.”*
The invisible ‘Heavenly Chi’, traced by the intersection of the celestial equator and the ecliptic, expressed for some early Christian writers part of the cosmic symbolism of the Cross. Mba Essays? Precession had carried ‘the first point of music Aries’, the Sun’s location at the vernal equinox, well into Pisces by the time of Constantine. Time: the ‘Chi’ would be near the meridian for kellogg mba essays, observers at Rome around 9:30 pm local time on 10/27/312. Still, not until the 6th century do we encounter the earliest clear reference to the recognition. While this ought to satisfy our search, we have already encountered reasons to suspect that the recognition is actually older still. Gregory’s work surely represents elements of ap world history exam essays a received tradition. Cassian’s rule about using the stars to keep the hours for prayer reflects the practice of the monasteries of Lower Egypt which he had visited late in the 4th century. His writings reveal no details about this but it seems reasonable to think that there may well be something like the material found in Gregory’s De cursu buried in some as yet untranslated, undiscovered, or perhaps lost Coptic manuscript, as McCluskey suggests. It seems easier to imagine, for example, that an earlier tradition diffused westward to best, Gregory and eastward to Al-Biruni’s Syrians than that Gregory’s Latin manual could exercise an influence so far east into Byzantium.* However, Eusebius goes on to relate how this daytime vision was repeated in a dream or visitation at night.
Likewise, the writer known as the Christian Cicero, Lactantius, tells of Constantine’s dream on the night before the battle, an account written just six years after the orwell essay on political event.. He was advised “to mark the celestial sign of God on the shields of his soldiers.”* Does the best mba essays night time setting for these dreams offer anything toward interpreting the george orwell vision? Some historians find here nothing more than a stereotypical late imperial setting for epiphanies of this sort. But, there have been those who have sought a more night inspired explanation. F. Heiland, on the staff of the Zeiss planetarium at Jena back in the late 40’s and 50’s, wrote a piece for that institution’s journal entitled “Die astronomische Deutung der Vision Kaiser Konstantins” (The Astronomical Interpretation of the Vision of The Emperor Constantine).* In it he observes that the Fall of the year 312 AD was indeed attended by a noteworthy spectacle: the kellogg syzygy or close alignment of three bright planets in country essay the evening sky above the southwest horizon. Mars, Saturn and kellogg Jupiter were positioned along a line within about 20 degrees of each other on the border of Capricornus and Sagittarius. Such an event would surely have drawn the attention of the astrologers and diviners attached to all Roman armies who would have worried at what may well have been taken as an history exam essays ill omen.
The contemporary histories, including some of pagan origin, hint at some such dark sign prior to the battle, one which Constantine defied in pressing his attack. Heiland’s solution was to suggest that Constantine overcame the psychological impact on his army of the pagan astrological omen by appropriating it to fashion a Christian token of victory. Left to right: The 'staurogram' combining the Greek letters Tau and Rho, the best kellogg Chi-Rho monogram formed by the first two letters in Christ, and the Iota-Chi monogram composed of the initials for Jesus Christ. Both Lactantius and Eusebius describe that token as something more than a simple Latin cross; as a “staurogram” in the case of the former or the Chi-Rho “monogram” in that of the latter. Following Lactantius’ description, Heiland pictured a new and obviously temporary asterism formed by combining the alignment of cheats to writing planets with surrounding stars. Prof. Michael DiMaio has more recently offered a modified version of Heiland’s proposal, noting that Venus also eventually joined the alignment on the ecliptic in October of 312. The cross member is thus lengthened and the upright with the “Rho” becomes a rather enormous loop reaching all the best way to online, bright Vega.* (See note #13 at: http://www.roman-emperors.org/conniei.htm) The alignment asterism of Heiland (heavier lines) and DiMaio, made by combining the alignment of planets with stars borrowed from several classical constellations.
Venus, in DiMaio’s arrangement, would have been very near to setting at the end of twilight on his proposed date of best mba essays October 27th in 312 AD An eleven-day-old moon would be shining in the SE on the at thesis on physician assisted, date. Time: 6:30 pm at Rome. Personally, I judge that these proposals somewhat tax the imagination. Best Kellogg? Can a precedent be cited for cheats to writing, combining planets and stars to form such an ephemeral asterism? Would borrowing stars from such a variety of already existing and familiar star patterns be very convincing for Constantine’s “astrologically challenged” generals?
Although I think DiMaio is correct to include Venus in the alignment, since the presence of the best mba essays queen of heaven always adds drama to any evening sky, I note how very low to the horizon it is orwell as twilight begins. By the time it had grown dark enough for stars in kellogg mba essays Ophiuchus to be discernible Venus would have all but set. And then there’s the presence of an 11 day old moon to deal with on the 27th. So, although I don’t find the “alignment asterism” very convincing I do think pointing out the alignment itself adds to our understanding of the atmosphere of paper portent found in the histories, something largely neglected by modern scholarship. Could the Cross in Cygnus offer a simpler interpretation? Without entertaining any illusions about being able to prove such a thing, let me briefly offer a way of crafting such an interpretation that seems to me to be at least as interesting and kellogg mba essays as plausible as the “alignment asterism”. Describing the wide interest of early Christian writers in the symbolism of the Cross, Hugo Rahner put the on physician matter this way. “The cross is everywhere- it is in the shape of the human form when we stretch out our hands in prayer, it is in the flight of birds, in kellogg mba essays the instruments of husbandry, it is in the form of the ship’s mast when it is exam essays crossed by best a spar.”* Examples abound from the works of Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Minutius Felix and george orwell essay on political Methodius. The latter, writing in the early 3rd century, offers this observation, “For every creature, so to speak, has, for the sake of kellogg liberty, been marked with this sign; for birds which fly aloft, form the essay figure of the cross by the expansion of their wings. ”* Among those familiar with Aratus’ Phenomena Cygnus was known simply as the Bird, ‘o ornis. Best Kellogg? Given that Christian imagination had recognized the research reports figure of the cross so widely and early on, if it really had failed to fin one in Cygnus before the kellogg 6th century we should wonder why not! Augury, divination based on bird signs, was regularly practiced on behalf of the Roman military, the idea being that winged creatures could convey messages from the lofty realm of the gods to mortals keen to read them on the earth below. The army carried the necessary complement of factor analysis chickens wherever they marched.
Chief among birds was, of course, the bird of Zeus -the eagle, the aquila well known from so much Roman symbolism. By imperial times the aquila had long since become the best kellogg principle standard carried by the legions and the worship of these standards was a regular part of army life. Setting up a shrine to the aquila in the Temple was among the sacrileges inflicted upon the Jews of Jerusalem by the Roman army as the thesis on physician suicide city fell in 70 AD, according to kellogg mba essays, the historian Josephus.* The cross used by Constantine on the shields of his soldiers, the new standard under which they marched, called the “labarum” by an essay Eusebius, in effect replaced the eagle of Imperial Rome. So notes the kellogg mba essays nineteenth century historian Philip Schaff.* It suggests to me an interpretation of Constantine’s vision which imagines it as a sort of celestial augury.
R. Essay? H. Allen’s Star Names offers this note under the best section on Aquila, “Thompson thinks that the fable, in in research paper Greek ornithology, of the eagle attacking the swan, but defeated by it, is symbolical of “Aquila, which rises in the East, immediately after Cygnus, but, setting in the West, goes down a little while before that more northern constellation.””* Lord D’Arcy Thompson, the English naturalist, collected all manner of classical information for best kellogg mba essays, his book, A Glossary of Greek Birds , often with an eye toward aspects related to “the picture-book of the sky”, as he called it.* In my celestial augury the Eagle v. Swan combat suggests something like Aquila/Rome/Maxentius in conflict with Cygnus/Cross/Constantine. Perhaps this Cygnoid Cross, backed by the story of the emperor’s celestial epiphany, was employed to offer an effective promise of victory over against the astrologers’ unnerving portent. The ‘celestial augury’ suggested by the way the Imperial Aquila is said to have been replaced by the heavenly sign of God on 2010 essays, the shields of Constantine’s army and by the myth of an Eagle/Swan combat. Although little commends it as more than an imaginative speculation, the legend of Constantine’s Vision may have contributed to the eventual recognition of a cross in the stars of best kellogg mba essays Cygnus. Time: 10:30 local time on 10/27/312 from george Rome. What of the staurogram figure? To make Lactantius’ cross “with the top of its head bent round,”* add a loop to the traditional cross starting at Deneb, passing through omicron Cygni 1 and 2 and closing at gamma Cygni. No, these are not terribly bright stars and best kellogg mba essays yes, there are competing stars sprinkled nearby. Cheats An Essay? As star gazers know so well, all that’s necessary is to recognize the pattern once to lock it into the imagination. Best Kellogg? At least it has the factor paper advantage of simplicity. For those who may have access to best, any of today’s computerized planetarium programs, just advance the time in half hour steps to watch the conflict unfold until Cygnus rests unassailed and the victorious Cross stands upright on the northwest horizon after around 10:30 pm in the late October skies of 312 AD.
The sources that survive from 4th century Rome, lamented by historians as a poorly documented era in any case, simply don’t allow for assisted suicide, very much resembling the possibility of definitive proof for any of the various interpretations proposed for Constantine’s vision. It has been interpreted as an best outright miracle of faith, a political and online reports religious fiction, a purely psychological experience, something to do with solar halos, something to do with stars, or combinations thereof. Mba Essays? Each has had proponents over the years. Factor Paper? Although my fond speculation about this “celestial augury” remains improbable, more certain by far is the fact that Constantine’s legend seems to best kellogg mba essays, have contributed, or else attracted, elements of astral imagery. In interpreting the vision I tend to allow, with historians like Robin Fox, for a certain interplay of george orwell essay internal experience and external observation. Elusive as it is, imagination is key. As Fox puts it, “A man only mba essays, sees in the sky what he is predisposed to notice or recall. ”* What might Constantine have been predisposed to notice or recall? We cannot know fully, but perhaps there are clues. Christian advisors had at george orwell on political language, some point gained access to the emperor’s thoughts or else his conversion, whatever we make of it, would be completely unintelligible.
Yet, the world in which he lived, grew up, and aspired to the purple was still mainly a pagan world. Serving under the Tetrarchy at the close of the 3rd century makes it hard to imagine that the cults had not contributed something to mba essays, his imagination, whether negative or positive. Mithraism, for example, and the cult of Sol Invictus were very much a part of the religious milieu of the army and the imperium. Modern researchers, notably David Ulansey and Roger Beck, have shown how thoroughly astral symbolism played a part in the Mithraic mysteries, although significant details are still being debated.* E. C. Krupp’s recent book, Skywatchers, Shamans and Kings: The Astronomy and Archaeology of Power , rehearses the cosmic imagery behind Rome’s empire; from Julius Ceasar’s apotheosis upon the appearance a comet, to Augustus’ use of Capricorn, his birth sign, on his coins and banners, to research, the erection of the Solarium Augustii.* That Constantine may have had similar interests in best kellogg mba essays employing celestial imagery is suggested several ways. From 315, three years after defeating Maxentius, rare silver medallions minted at Ticinum show Constantine’s portrait and his helmet with its high crest or crown of “feathers”.* Although I am not aware of any specific study of the iconography of country essay these decorations, to my eye their round shape and rayed appearance give the impression of nothing so much as stars.
Set among them is one fashioned in the figure of the “Chi-Rho” of the labarum, one of its earliest known representations.* Do we have here something of a hint as to what he might have been predisposed to notice or recall? Or, was it mere rhetoric that inspired the emperor to lend these words, toward the best kellogg mba essays end of his life, to the inscription on online research, the monument to St. Peter in Rome, “Because of your leadership the glorious universe has reached to the furthest stars. Best Mba Essays? ”?* Finally, and perhaps most tellingly, what of the way Constantine’s memory is research celebrated in the Eastern Church? Orthodox Christian monasteries celebrate the feast day of Saints Constantine and Helena, May 21st, with hymns that include the following lines for Matins, “Having stretched forth thy senses toward heaven and acquired the beauty of the stars, thou wast taught by best kellogg mba essays them the mysteries of the in research Lord of all; and the weapon of the Cross shone forth in their midst. ”* The connection of astral imagery with Constantine’s vision of the Cross is so clear in kellogg mba essays the hymn that we are left wondering what its source might be, since it seems to owe nothing to the histories usually relied upon for information about the emperor’s life and reign. The Slavonic text for the Orthodox Menaion goes back only as far as the 17th century, but it is essay obviously based on more ancient Byzantine tradition. There is a considerable body of hagiographic literature inspired by Constantine and, especially, the legend of Helena’s discovery of the Cross.* So far my search for best kellogg mba essays, such astral imagery there has been in vain. A possible but problematic source lies in the brief account of Constantine’s conversion attributed to the Arian historian Philostorgius.
His lost 5th century Ecclesiastical History , judged by historians to be rather unreliable as an account of the origin and spread of Arianism, comes to us as a 9th century epitome by Photius. It tells how “the sign of the cross was seen in online research the East, vast in extent and lit up with glorious light, and surrounded on each side by stars like a rainbow, symbolizing the form of letters.”* The letters spell out the well known heaven sent message to Constantine, In hoc signo vinces , “By this sign you will conquer,” apparently in Latin instead of Greek. But starry letters “on each side” of the Cross bears a striking similarity to what we find in Gregory’s De cursu stellarum . That such a theologically tainted source would have contributed directly to best kellogg, the Orthodox liturgy is hard to imagine. But, Philostorgius’ account may still betray the ultimate source of all this starry imagery. With the orwell essay on political few lines quoted above regarding Constantine’s vision in mind, here is the account of Ignatius of Antioch concerning another celestial portent of interest to kellogg mba essays, Christians. “How then were these mysteries revealed to the ages? A star shone in the sky, brighter than all other stars; its light was indescribable and its strangeness provoked wonder, and all the rest of the stars with the Sun and moon made a choir around that star which outshone them all. ”* The celestial sign Ignatius describes here is, of course, the Star of Bethlehem recorded in the Gospel of factor in research Matthew.
Philostorgius’ sign of the cross shining with a wonderful light and surrounded by a rainbow of stars, a choir that silently spells out its message not so much of praise but of best assurance, bears a certain resemblance to in research paper, Ignatius’ commentary on the familiar nativity scene. Both may in fact have in mind the dreams of Joseph in Genesis ch. 37. Does the detail that the cross shines “in the best kellogg East” suggest that Philostorgius had in mind the tradition of the Christmas Star? If the similarities between these passages are not simply coincidental, I would argue that they fit well with the recent interpretation offered by Richard Trexler regarding the role of the Magi and the star in Christian art from the analysis paper Constantinian era.* Proposals tracing the evolution of the Chi-Rho of the labarum from a pagan star have been largely dismissed by best historians. However, if Trexler and those his account relies upon factor in research paper, are correct perhaps an evolution from best a Christian star should be considered. He notes, “In the few scenes of the Magi viewing the star that may predate Constantine, the form of the Magi’s star is twofold. Far the most common is a six-pointed star; in rare cases one encounters the superimposed Greek letters iota and chi (See Figure 3), the first letters in the Greek word for “Jesus” and “Christ.” After 312, however, both the music essay star and the “iota-chi” encounter competition from a superimposition of the letters chi and rho, the first two Greek letters of the word “Christ.”” * An example that entails both monogram and staurogram as apparent stand-ins for best kellogg mba essays, the Bethlehem star can be found on the 5th century tomb of Flavius Julius Catervius in Tolentino, Italy.*
Mediated by this symbolic play of george orwell on political language letters (recall both Gregory of Tours and Philostorgius) Star and Cross, or at least Star and Labarum, came to be associated in Christian art and imagination. Best Kellogg Mba Essays? Both had been celestial signs. The first brings the Magi, since the time of Tertullian increasingly imagined as kings, to worship the Christ child. The second likewise brings Constantine to faith in Christ and to the throne of Rome. Cheats? Unless some explicit source in kellogg mba essays Constantinian hagiography remains to factor analysis in research, be identified, perhaps we need search no further for the origin of the best astral language of the feast day hymns than the role the Magi and their star played in ap world exam essays early and later Christian imagination as presented in Trexler’s account. The things Constantine, and those after him, would have noticed and recalled were perhaps richly stellar after all. If we approach the question more generally in terms of origins we are forced to wonder about still earlier monastic traditions, now lost to the mists of best mba essays time, and the ways Christian imagination was directed toward the heavens by the stories of the Savior’s Star and country essay the Emperor’s Vision. Constantine’s celestial sign, whether by day or night, fired the imaginations of others who were soon, not surprisingly, granted epiphanies of best mba essays their own. After 312 showers of heavenly cross visions seem to rain down into Christian literature and art.
The emperor’s mother, Helena, sees a heavenly sign guiding her search for the True Cross in Jerusalem. Constantine’s sons have cross visions, and, of country essay course, Cyril of Jerusalem.* The celestial sign that brought the Emperor to Christ reminded Christians of the one that first guided the Magi to best kellogg, the stable in Bethlehem. Cross and Star came to be seen in orwell on political each other’s glorious light. Behind the cruciform stars still found on our Christmas cards lies a long half forgotten history. Thus, regarding the question of the asterism’s origins perhaps the best kellogg mba essays most certainty that can be gleaned is that if the recognition of a Cross in 2010 exam the stars of Cygnus had not already taken place by or in the early part of the 4th century it soon became all but inevitable for one to be found there after Constantine. * Footnotes and illustrations have been withheld. Please consult the article as printed in Culture and kellogg mba essays Cosmos, v. 4, no.2. Online see http://www.cultureandcosmos.com or write to CC , PO Box 1071, Bristol BS99 1HE, UK. The author would like to acknowledge the kind assistance of Prof. Timothy Hegedus (Waterloo Lutheran Seminary), art historian Dr.
Hanna. Witte-Orr, and country music essay Dr. Best Kellogg? R.H. van Gent. Footnotes in cheats to writing the original article. indicate their specific contributions. Ilustrations presented in original article: The Cross of St.
Helena after Schiller Schickard’s Crux Christi Crux Major from De Cursu Stellarum The Ticinum medallion Constantine’s Vision from the 15th century Church of the Holy Cross of Agiasmati Right and Left end panels from the kellogg mba essays tomb of Catervius Galla Placida’s celestial cross St. Country Music Essay? Apollinare de Classe’s starry cross Copyright 2000 by kellogg mba essays the author.