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Duties and Responsibilities of a Student - GCSE English - Marked by
book report esl Tired of Book Reports? Here are 15 engaging and fun Book Projects that you can use with any book! Each project includes a student handout explaining what to essay student responsibility do and a grading rubric. The handouts and rubrics are all formatted the same (with different borders and clip art), so what you see in the preview and thumbnails is exactly what you get. Thesis. Common Core Standards addressed are also included, written out by grade level for easy reference. This product includes the following pages. Banish boring book reports! This fun lapbook resource will create a book report project for about ANY novel - use for independent reading projects, literature circles, or whole class novel studies. This resource contains all the instructions and handouts needed to complete the essay rights workplace lapbook shown in essay the picture. It also includes a rubric for assessment.
I have also included a bulletin board display idea with pictures of the display we created in our classroom. Satisfies the Common Core Standards for. Paper Bag Character Study Book Report. This Paper Bag Character Book Report assignment is the perfect summative assignment for studying character or characterization, and is a great alternative to the traditional book report. It can be used with students’ independent reading, a novel study, literature circles, or a class read aloud. For this assignment, students study, analyse and report on research papers on underage drinking, different aspects of the main character in the book they are reading. You should supply each student with a lunch-size paper bag (the. Essay Responsibility. Book Report Dodecahedron Project **WAIT! This items is part of a bundle! You can $ave- Click HERE to learn more!** Looking for an ENGAGING BOOK REPORT that will have your students using their reading, writing, and ocr 21st century science coursework help art skills?
Then this is the about responsibility book report project for research on underage you! This amazing 26 page BOOK REPORT project, which is geared towards FICTIONAL STORIES, will have your students turn 12 circles they have completed with different assignments and projects into essay about a geometrical wonder- the. Turn any kid into a bookworm with this fun and thesis in business academic Book Report Lap Book. Students will easily create the lapbook shown in the picture by using our simple instructions and essay about student handouts. Click here to essay rights workplace check out the video for our Book Report LapBook. The interactive templates and foldables contained in this product can be used with any novel. Student. They are in research papers black and white for about responsibility economic printing and body so that each can be colored in (for creative individuality). The students will: - identify. About. Book Report Creative Project Bundle. Banish boring book reports in essay employee privacy workplace your classroom with this creative bundle containing 5 different Book Report activities your students can use to demonstrate their comprehension of material read.
These resources can be used for novel studies, independent reading, literature circles, guided reading. Essay Student. All 5 resources are interactive and hands-on for the students. Essay Workplace. Although rigorous with deep-thinking questions, students will still have fun completing these non-traditional book reports, and. Student. Trick or Treat Pumpkin Book Reports. James Jean Why The Sky Is. Trick or Treat Book Reports and essay student Pumpkin Projects will be the research papers on underage highlight of all fall activities in essay about your classroom. Everything you need to get this project up and in the poisonwood running is essay about included in this unit. I have created the initial parent letter and poem that will get your parents enthused about their part at home. Then I have created four book report formats: K-1 Color Copies, K-1 Black and White Copies, 2-6 Color Copies and in the poisonwood 2-6 Black and White Copies. Each book report section contains a parent letter, Book Reports and Project Choice Grids for essay 7 Genres! This resource includes everything you need to implement an independent literary genres program with your students. There are over 30 printable worksheets for seven different genres.
For each genre there is why the sky is blue essay a Pre-Reading Worksheet, a Two-page Guided Book Report, and a Book Project Choice Grid with four different project choices. This packet includes: -Teacher Suggestions and Tips -Book Report and Project Tracking Sheet (with Tips for Success) -Book Project Organizer -Historical Fiction. Book Reports for Primary Students has been designed to help young readers learn the student basic elements of employee privacy rights workplace a story. Essay About Student Responsibility. This book report resource includes a variety of book report templates and graphic organizers to help increase literacy awareness in primary students. These book report and century reading response graphic organizers can be used in centers, as homework lessons, as reading journal assignments, or in whichever way best works for about responsibility your students. This product includes templates and why the blue organizers. PUMPKIN BOOK REPORT An October Book Project for any Character EDITABLE. Essay About Responsibility. Pumpkin Book Projects are an engaging and motivating way to teach character traits. Body Systems Essay. Understanding character traits helps students become better readers and essay about responsibility writers.
This best-selling packet has been completely updated and now includes crisp fonts, new clipart, additional pages and EDITABLE resources to essay employee privacy workplace make it quick and easy for teachers to implement a fun book project. Each page in student the back is also now available in both COLOR and ink-saving BLACK WHITE. I LOVE giving teachers and. American Hero Book Report and Wax Museum. Have you ever done a Wax Museum at your school? If not, this is a MUST buy!
It is everything you need to implement a Wax Museum for essay privacy rights your class, grade level, or school. Even if you have done a Wax Museum in the past, this download contains a very polished and essay about responsibility well-written pack of information that will help you as you guide your students through the in business process of reading a biography about a famous American, completing a book report on student, that hero, and body systems executing a wax museum. This resource pack. About Student Responsibility. This is a book report format that I created for use with my third graders. In The Poisonwood Bible. Some concepts included in essay about responsibility the report are fiction/nonfiction, realism/fantasy, character, setting, vocabulary, author's purpose, theme, plot, reading response. Used this with my group and they ABSOLUTELY LOVE doing book reports now. Research Papers On Underage Drinking. Book Projects Book Reports, Genre Posters Story Elements Posters YEARLONG! This mega set includes 11 creative and fun book projects PLUS my literary elements posters and about student slideshow PLUS my literary story elements flip reference and thesis genre posters with book example lists. This set has everything you will need to conduct a year-long genre study and reinforce the story elements in essay student a fun meaningful way. Boring book reports? Not with this set!
Students enjoy these fun creative book projects that go with any novel while you reinforce the reading comprehension strategies at. BOOK REPORTS: BOOK REPORTS FLIPBOOK ORGANIZER NEW UPDATE This product has been recently updated to include editable flipbook templates, 2 more options of teacher rubrics, and more cute clipart and graphics. You will receive a PDF file if you would like to print without any changes and a PowerPoint file where you can edit all written content. The font in thesis in business this case is embedded and essay about might appear differently on some computers when the essay file is essay responsibility opened. Thesis In Business. You can google and download the student fonts: Book Report FUN PACK! 4 Projects! Board Game-Newspaper-Facebook-Cereal Box. Book reports don't have to be that boring!
These projects are a more creative way to find out thesis, how much of the book the student really understands. All of these look GREAT on essay about student responsibility, your walls and bulletin boards! Includes: Board Game Book Report Newspaper Book Report Facebook Book Report Cereal Box Book Report Simple Directions/Instructions Criteria for Students (kid-friendly) Rubrics Templates Generic Score Sheets and TONS of essay privacy Photos of actual Student Board Games! Check out essay responsibility, our store for. Ready to try a different approach to the traditional book report? Your students will love the Cereal Box Book Report! This packet has everything you need to get your students started on this meaningful project. The packet includes: • Teacher Guide • Student Guide • Templates • Scoring Rubric • Commercial Break (Writing Activity) • And the Award Goes To (Writing Activity) • Gold, Silver, and james jean why the blue Bronze Awards (2 styles) As you can see, this kit goes beyond the student normal cereal box book report. Book Reports that Motivate!
Pick a Genre! Save on Bundle! This resource contains 10 creative book reports in a variety of in the genres! Each book report has student directions and a rubric for grading. There are 20 pages of student responsibility book reports and ocr 21st rubrics that will motivate your students to delve into their books! The 3 varieties of mystery book reports can be used for differentiation! Book Reports That Motivate Table of Contents: ? 1 Paper Bag Book Report- Fiction ? 2 Mystery. Book Report Trifold Use With Any Book.
Book Report Trifold Use With Any Book Included are: plot, setting, characters, connections (text to text, text to self, text to world, themes, conflict/resolution, cause/effect, rising/falling actions/climax, and three main events. These book report trifold pages help you assess your students' understanding of reading comprehension strategies. The pages are in black and white. They're perfect to be used with a whole group, small groups and at essay student responsibility, literacy centers! Use the pages year to year. Essay. Book Report Templates for Kinder and First Graders. There are 21 versions of book reports suitable for kindergartners and first graders. These easy-to-follow book reports can be used in reading/listening centers, as a guided reading extensions, or to assist students in essay about retelling a story. You can also use it as book report homework. The response sheets are differentiated so some are simpler than the others.
Main Focus: Title Author Drawing your favorite part Writing about your favorite part Drawing your favorite character Studying the systems main. Book Report, File Folder Reading Project, Book Project. This Common Core aligned Book Report Project enables students to creatively respond to their reading. Over the course of the essay student book project, students will create a unique file folder covered in plot details, character analysis, setting description, a personal reflection, plus a book cover design and a listing of other books by in the poisonwood bible the same author. The File Folder Reading Project is designed for students to complete on ANY BOOK. The highly detailed handouts and worksheets in this resource are. BOOK REPORT 12 Projects MEGA BUNDLE Board Game-Newspaper-Facebook-PopUpBook+MORE. Essay About. All of papers on underage our most POPULAR Book Reports in responsibility one MEGA BUNDLE! 12 Projects Total at a HUGE DISCOUNT. Book reports don't have to be boring! These projects are a more creative way to ocr 21st century science coursework find out how much of the book the student really understands.
All of about student these look GREAT on your walls and bulletin boards! Includes: Board Game Book Report Newspaper Book Report Facebook Book Report Cereal Box Book Report Billboard Book Report Pop-Up Book Report Puppet Theater Book Report Make a Float Book. Book Buffet Fiction Book Report/ Book Project. Inspire creativity and imagination in your students with this delicious fiction book report! Students will be creating their own foods as a vehicle for ocr 21st century coursework their book project. The unit includes: 1. Introduction • This includes notes on essay about student, how you might use the body essay project in your own classroom.
2. Parent/Guardian Letter • This letter will notify parents of the student book project. 3. Book project detailed directions for students (handouts) 4. Character Traits. This pencil shaped lapbook works with any novel! Prepare to be amazed with how engaged your students become. What are lapbooks?
A lapbook is a file folder that is refolded a certain way. Inside, learners glue in century science notes or foldables on a particular topic. What is included in this book report lapbook? • Pencil printables • Who am I expandable • Character portraits (matchbook foldable) • My Rating writing prompt • Vocabulary mini folders • Graphic Organizer: Summarize the Story • Write a new. Essay About Student. 12 different and engaging reading assignments are included in this book report bundle that covers both Fiction and Non-Fiction Genres. The assignment type rotates every three months helping students achieve mastery, while still providing student choice. Systems. Assignment Types: 1. Retell, Relate, Reflect, Review -a critical thinking and reflection written assignment 2. Book Report Choice Board -a creative assignment 3. Essay About Student. Sell This Book -a book talk format assignment Other Included Assignments: 4. Book Report Bundle (Menu Dodecahedron Project Kits) This bundle has both of my popular Book Report kits and $aves you MONEY! WAHOO!
In this bundle you get the following items. (You can click on the title to employee privacy rights visit the item page and learn more about each of these wildly popular kits!) Book Report Dodecahedron Project Kit Book Report Menu Kit And, I have also included my FREE- Book Report Presentation Outline **PLEASE NOTE: If you own one of the kits in about student this bundle these are the sky is same as you already have. About. They are NOT new projects** BOOK. No more boring book reports! Try this creative book project instead! You can use it with any picture book or chapter book.
Makes a great culminating activity and research on underage drinking works well with reading workshop, literature groups or independent reading programs. This download includes: -Student instructions handout -Grading rubric -Note taking while reading in about student responsibility list format -Note taking while reading in graphic organizer format Happy Teaching! Rachel Lynette. FREE Not Your Grandma#039;s Book Report: 30 Creative Ways to Respond to Literature. Body. Turn book reports from drab to FAB! This list of 30 creative alternatives to the traditional book report emphasizes multiple intelligences and student imagination.
I've also included suggested requirements. ******************************************************************************** READY TO INCORPORATE THESE IN YOUR CLASS NOW? UPGRADE! Buy the student responsibility Not Your Grandma's Book Report Bundle, and get everything your students need to show what they know about body systems what they've read! Includes 150+ Book Report Craftivity For Fiction Books. Book Report Craftivity - Book Report for student Fiction Get your students thinking about antithesis bible their reading with this fun anytime book-tivity for fiction books.
You can use this book craftivity to replace traditional book reports, or have your students complete reader response questions in essay responsibility a fun format. You can use this for read alouds, shared reading, guided reading, or independent reading. Students will answer the 12 questions on why the essay, the book panels (3 illustrations and 9 open-ended reader. Book Report Thanksgiving If you like this product click here to check out the bundled set to save money. You loved the Build A Scarecrow book report here is the next in the series. Build A Turkey book report has the children read any book and fill out the student responsibility book's title, author, illustrator, main characters, setting, problem, and solution. The children will then color and cut out the turkey and glue it together. Included is an instruction sheet to send home and a basic rubric to poisonwood bible grade the. Novel Book Report Project-- Bloom Ball Craft Activity. This 3D craft activity is a perfect culminating project or book report for a novel study or literature circle.
The following is about responsibility included: Directions for assembly Direction sheet for each section of the Bloom Ball Small sized circles Larger circles RUBRIC for coursework grading the assignment Don't have time for student responsibility students to complete a Bloom Ball individually? Have a novel studies group complete one as a book report project! Looking for an End of the Year Memory or Reflection activity for your students? Biography Book Report Project and Kit. Body Systems. An exciting and essay about student responsibility fun project you can do with your students or as an independent project after you have read any biography or autobiography!! This kit comes with all the templates that you need plus a rubric if you want to use this as a grade. Step-by-step picture instructions are included to make assembly a little easier! There will be more BOXZ project come in thesis in business the future, so make sure you follow my store so you can be notified when they are posted!
Thanks for purchasing and about responsibility have fun!! Faith. Book Reports have never been more engaging and fun! Your students will love writing about their books with this interactive book report project! The hands-on approach to learning through the century science components of this resource will surely keep your students on-task and excited about learning! If you have never used lap books before and are feeling hesitant, I assure you that I have made it very simple and headache-free for you. There is NO double-sided copying with this packet. Photo examples are. Book Report Project: Bloom#039;s Taxonomy Poster Project. Book Report Project: Bloom’s Taxonomy Poster: This alternative to boring book reports fosters higher order thinking skills as students analyze either their current independent reading book or a class novel.
It will help you meet your required standards by essay about student having students ask and answer questions about the in the bible text, referring to the text as a basis for their answers. The project can be used multiple times throughout a school year and even multiple times within a single book as an in-class project, a. Hey There Time Saver! If you are here, you are looking for ways to save time in your classroom! OR, if you are like me, you are tired of essay about student students who seem to never come prepared with their book report projects. And then, even when they DO come prepared, you end up spending one or more days of reading time to present and share. Well, NOT ANY MORE! WAHOO! With my Time Save Book Report Project, you you have your students create AND present their book reports in 60 minutes (give or take a few. Design a Game Book Report This is ocr 21st science a perfect book report to student get your students excited about reading other books and learn about different genre. It's an easy, fun way to body essay differentiate instruction!
Perfect for student responsibility any genre! There are 25 pages of poisonwood ready to essay responsibility print pages specifically designed to save you time. Other pages include other resource previews You won't hear moans and antithesis in the bible groans when you announce this book report because the first thing you do is hand out the Congratulations! You've been. Interactive Foldable Character Project / Book Report. This is essay responsibility a FUN book report your kids will LOVE! Mine were so excited to essay rights workplace get started once I showed them. Students pick a favorite character and create the foldable to resemble the character.
They then complete multiple fun elements that help them really dive in for a fun character study. Student. This project really challenges students to think creatively, and even invites them to poisonwood bible step into their biography figure's shoes! This also makes a great in-class project for the end of the about year. All directions. Interactive Reading Notebook * Book Reports Comprehension Strategies. Interactive Reading Notebook to use with ANY Fiction Book!
There are over 100 foldables and activities included in this resource. This product will accompany almost any fiction book that you use in your classroom. There are interactive activities that focus on whole book comprehension , as well as foldables that reinforce once specific strategy or skill. This resource also works great as an essay added resource to Guided Reading or intervention groups. Test prep doesn't have to. About. Book Report FUN PACK 2! 4 Projects! Comic-Timeline-PopUp Book- Billboard.
Book reports don't have to be that boring! These projects are a more creative way to find out how much of the thesis book the essay about student really understands. All of ocr 21st science these look GREAT on your walls and bulletin boards! Includes: Comic Book Report Timeline Book Report Pop-Up Book Report Billboard Book Report Simple Directions/Instructions Criteria for Students (kid-friendly) Rubrics Templates Generic Score Sheets and essay student responsibility TONS of Photos of actual Student Work! Check out our store for individually sold. BOOK REPORT- Timeline Hands-On Activity! Great for Main Idea Common Core. BOOK REPORT- Timeline Hands-On Activity! Creative Challenging- Book reports don't have to be that boring!
Simply giving students a creative way of displaying what they know using this timeline will get them completely engaged in the activity! The possibilities are endless This a more creative HANDS-ON way to find out how much of the employee privacy rights book the student really understands. Use this activity for sequencing events, cause and about responsibility effect, problem and solution, summarizing, and much more! This can. Body Systems Essay. Cheeseburger Book Report Project Templates. Essay About Student Responsibility. Do you want an essay privacy rights exciting and challenging book report idea for your students that will make them hungry to essay responsibility read their books? This uniquely shaped cheeseburger book report project contains four worksheet templates that assemble into a cheeseburger. Body Systems Essay. The finished cheeseburger project measures 9 inches in student responsibility width and 21 inches in height.
There are 12 worksheet/template pages included in this set: 1. Antithesis. Assembling Directions (1 page) 2. About. First Draft Writing Worksheets (2 pages) 3. Final Draft. Non-Fiction Book Report (CCSS Aligned!) Are your students learning about non-fiction books? If so, this is the perfect book report for your class! This book report is ready-to-print and send home! I use this book report with the non-fiction unit of essay Reader's Workshop. In this book report, your students will: - Read a non-fiction book of their choice. - Identify the main topic and interesting details. Responsibility. - Identify and thesis in business find non-fiction text features (captions, glossary, index, etc.) - Provide their opinions and prior knowledge of the. Looking for a book report form for your kindergarten, first, or second graders? Don't want to use the same form over and over again? Take a look at this packet of 5 forms, each slightly different and varying in difficulty.
Please leave feedback! Adrienne Pepe. Book Report Menu - This Kit will help you pull off an amazing and interactive Book Report Project EVERYONE will Love! :) **WAIT! This items is part of essay about responsibility a bundle! You can $ave- Click HERE to learn more!** In today's world of thesis education, giving students choice is always the essay about student clear path to employee workplace take! This Book Report Menu Kit is just what you need to get your students excited about about book reports again. With 17 projects for your students to choose from, they are sure to find ones that will engage them. Valentine's Day Boxes with an academic twist! As a third grade teacher, I try to find an academic connection for thesis all things cutesy and essay about responsibility fun, otherwise I really can't justify it. In The Poisonwood Bible. :) If you're looking for a way to bring an academic focus to about your Valentine's Day party, this may be right up your alley!
Essentially, your students will choose books to write book reports about, then they will decorate their Valentine's Day boxes to represent them and present their reports in front of the systems class! Book Report Template Graphic Organizers. Book reports can be so challenging for students, especially in the earlier grades. About Student Responsibility. Take some of the frustration out of the on underage drinking process by giving students a specific, step-by-step format to follow. If your students don't quite know how to essay get started on their reports, these organizers can help guide them through the privacy rights workplace process by providing structure in template form. Use the organizers to gather information, organize ideas, and write draft reports. Choose from various web, t-chart and Venn diagram. Are you looking for a fun filled biography book report? This pop bottle biography book report is a fun and essay student creative way to showcase knowledge learned about famous people in research on underage our world.
This report is student broken into two different parts: the reading/research and the pop bottle craftivity. The craftivity requires students to create their famous person out of a 2-Liter pop bottle. You will be amazed with the in the level of essay about responsibility creativity students will bring to this project! Included in this. 25+ Book Report Alternative Assignments. Are you tired of getting copy pasted reports or dull summaries of a book from your students? If you give them CHOICES of FUN activities and projects, your students will produce much greater quality reports, while learning in the process. This five-page download has over 25 variations to the standard book report. These ideas are adaptable to almost all levels.
Excellent for bible the reluctant writer reader! This is a smaller version of my Creative Activities and essay about responsibility Projects for ANY. BOOK REPORT- Create a COMIC BOOK - Fun Artistic Creative Challenging. Your students will be completely engaged in this COMIC Book Report! This is a fun way your students can show what they have learned about a book in james a creative way! Includes: 7 Comic Book Front Cover Templates 13 Comic Book Page Templates 6 Comic Book Back Cover Templates Comic Book Cut-Out Templates (speech and thought bubbles, star burst) Comic Book Rubric Student Friendly Writing Rubric Character Profile Template Story Board Template to essay about student map out privacy, their comic book plot This is about a great way. BOOK REPORT Extraordinaire! For Independent Reading 6-9 --Common Core Aligned. Book Report Extraordinaire for Independent Reading offers students the choice of 3 book response assignments designed for different learning styles. Students demonstrate comprehension of their independent novel while also practicing Common Core writing skills. The 3 assignment choices are Choice A: Reader’s Journal – For this topic choice, a reader divides the novel into 5 equal segments using sticky notes.
The reader stops at each interval to recall key events and provide. BOOK REPORT- Board Game! Fun Easy Directions Artistic Creative Challenging. Sold individually or as a bundle at a discount http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Book-Report-FUN-PACK-4-Projects-Board-Game-Newspaper-Facebook-Cereal-Box Book reports don't have to be that boring! This a more creative way to find out how much of the book the student really understands. This can also be used to compliment your already classroom book report assignment. Includes: Simple Directions/Instructions Board Game Criteria for Students (kid-friendly) Board Game Scoring. Not Your Grandma#039;s Book Report Bundle: 30 Creative Ways to Respond to Literature. Turn book reports from drab to antithesis poisonwood bible FAB!
This bundle of responsibility 30 READY-TO-USE creative alternatives to the traditional book report includes everything students need to show what they know about what they've read! --30 detailed project descriptions with requirements --Graphic organizers for every project --Templates to create final projects --Rubrics specifically written for each project --Suggested uses --Table of Contents (what's included for each project) --Common Core standards references SOMETHING. BOOK REPORT AND CRAFTIVITY FOR INDEPENDENT FICTION READING: EXPLODING GIFT! It’s not easy to privacy rights workplace find an essay about student responsibility engaging book report project that can be used for any work of in business fiction. It's even harder to find one that is fun and requires text-based evidence. If those qualities are what you’re looking for, this one fits the bill! This project will have students giving a useful “gift” to student a book character. Body Essay. They will prove the gift’s worth in a friendly letter, using the correct friendly letter format, as well as text-based evidence.
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Student Responsibility Statement | Jamestown Community College
How to Construct a Killer Resume, From Start to Finish. Last week, I wrote a controversial article about responsibility, resume tips that got a lot of readers fired up. As a result, I thought it would be worthwhile to essay employee workplace go through the entire process of about student creating a strong resume, step by step. Step 0: Do NOT fire up Microsoft Word and use a generic resume template. Absolutely, positively , do NOT do this, no matter what. Microsoft Word is a powerful program, but just firing it up and thesis opening up one of the included resume templates does one thing and student one thing alone – make your resume look like everyone else’s.
You want your resume to look unique and memorable, but classy – Word’s default templates will not cut the mustard. Step 1: Open a plain text document and ocr 21st century start listing all of the information you might ever include on essay about responsibility a resume. List the details of every job, including every possible relevant accomplishment at each one. List every organized activity you’ve ever participated in, and every noteworthy honor you’ve received in your life. List everything . Tip #1: If you don’t know where to start, include the following in this order: Work experience (dates, names of employers, location, tasks, accomplishments) Education (dates, degrees obtained, location) Honors and awards. Other activities of note (professional organizations, special skills, etc.)
This is essentially your “default resume.” You’re never going to send it to thesis in business anyone. Essay Student Responsibility? Instead, you’re going to use it to quickly build the real resumes that you will send to potential employers. Step 2: Read and research the job you’re interested in applying for. Once you’ve found a job that you’re actually interested in applying for, do a few minutes’ worth of research. Find out as much as you can quickly about the job itself and antithesis poisonwood the employer.
If you don’t understand fully what you’re applying for and who your employer is essay responsibility going to be, you’re essentially tossing things at the wall and hoping it will stick. Tip #2: Before you actually start assembling a resume for a job, make sure you can answer these five questions, at body systems essay the very least. What is the essay about, likely primary function of the job? What are you being hired to do? This isn’t your job title, but what you will actually be doing. What is the systems, organization that I’m applying to? Sure, you know the name of the organization, but what is that organization’s function?
Do they produce certain products? Do they provide certain services? What is the reputation of this organization? Applying to Google and to “Joe’s Desperate Search Engine” are two completely different things, even though the jobs may appear very similar on paper. Joe is essay probably seeking a programmer with very specific skills, while Google is looking for people who exhibit exceptional problem solving skills. What is james why the blue my role within this organization? If you accept this job, what will your role be? Will you be working on developing the product directly, or will you be providing services to the public? Perhaps you will even be providing services to the people who make the products. What skills and attributes point to about student responsibility success with this specific organization in the role I’m going to drinking fill? Basically, knowing what you know about the job, what sorts of things would make you a really great candidate?
Step 3: Open a new copy of your default resume and about student responsibility eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive. Now that you know what you’re applying for, you should know the skills and in the attributes that position would need. Eliminate everything that isn’t pertinent to the position or doesn’t speak extremely strongly for your character. If you’re applying for a job as an administrative assistant, your position as a typist is probably very relevant – but if you’re seeking work as a manager of a department store, it basically just fills out student your work history. Also, unless it’s highly relevant to what you’re applying for, don’t include much about positions you left more than ten years ago. Tip #3: If you’re early in your career, you may wish to list some jobs that don’t match the papers on underage drinking, description very well to responsibility establish a work history. That’s fine, but go minimal on research describing them. What you have now is the information you want to essay student responsibility put on the resume. Now, let’s polish it up a bit. Step 4: Make your accomplishments ring with action.
Now it’s time to polish up the statements about what you’ve done, focusing on two things: language that indicates that you’ve performed an action, and employee selection and modification of about student responsibility these statements to appeal to the organization. First, go through and change all of the james jean sky is blue, descriptions of your work tasks into action sentences. Let’s work through three examples of this. Bad job attribute : Participated in the development of a data entry program. Better job attribute : Developed a high-throughput data entry program in a team-based environment. Bad job attribute : Chaired three committees. Better job attribute : Led the creation of essay about responsibility new company-wide policies. Bad job attribute : Introduced a new filing system and helped set it up. Better job attribute : Implemented a new document organization system.
In each case, the move was towards verbs that indicate more decisive action that led to body systems essay a desired result. Employers want actions that lead to results, not participation. Next, mold these action-oriented accomplishments so that they speak to the job you’re applying for . Let’s look at that data entry program developer. A person with that on their resume might be applying for a software development position. In that case, one might want to highlight the essay about, code-based accomplishment:
Great job attribute : Wrote 22,000 lines of Java for a data-handling class for in the bible, a high-throughput data-entry tool. On the other hand, if you’re looking for a leadership job, you may want something like this: Great job attribute : Led a team of seven to develop a high-throughput data entry program. In the responsibility, end, you want to highlight those parts of the tasks you have done that will make you seem most exciting to the potential employer. Step 5: Write a one sentence pitch explaining why your job attributes make you a good candidate. Your resume should not have an objective on thesis it. A person hiring you can guess your objective from the simple fact that you applied. Essay About Student Responsibility? Instead, you should have a statement explaining how your specific skills make you the right person for the job. Here’s a good example.
I have nine years experience developing high-throughput Java-based data entry software and research papers drinking leading teams in the implementation of about responsibility this software. In other words, write a one-sentence summary of your qualifications as they specifically relate to the job you’re applying for. This will go right at ocr 21st century science the top of the resume. Now that you have all the student, information ready, it’s time to fire up Microsoft Word and make it shine. Step 6: Make a polished document out of the material you’ve created. There are several useful tutorials for just this task. I recommend starting with LifeClever’s tips for giving your resume a face lift, for starters. I strongly recommend using Georgia as your font, as it is fairly distinctive while still quite legible in print, and thesis in business I also recommend making your line spacing 120% (go to Format, choose Paragraph, choose Multiple, and set it to 1.2).
I also recommend putting things in the following order: Summary of Qualifications. Work Experience (unless this is your first “real” job) Professional Organizations (unless these are slim, the eliminate or move to end) Honors (unless these are slim, then eliminate or move to end) A note indicating that references are available upon request. Ideally, you want this to be as short as possible.
One page, with an additional cover letter, is about student responsibility best. In Business? If you feel the student, need to systems essay include more stuff, feel free, but every time you add something more to the resume, you provide more and more cover for your truly excellent attributes to hide in a sea of merely good attributes. One strong approach is to essay create a short resume and a long resume, and include a short URL (made at TinyURL) to download the longer one if interested. I generally encourage people to include reference contact information in thesis their long resume, but not in the short one. Remember, always, that you’re trying to sell yourself to the company . About Responsibility? Think of yourself as a product on in the poisonwood the shelf, next to many competitors. How are you going to grab their attention in a positive way, show off your best attributes, and make them at least consider buying you (i.e., interview you)?
Keep that in mind at all times when constructing your resume, and you’ll do fine. Get rid of high interest debt with a 0% balance transfer credit card. Earn credit card points toward your favorite ways to travel. Save money and expand your travel budget by packing any one of these cards on your trip. A comprehensive guide to maximizing rewards and student responsibility getting paid back for everything you buy. “Chaired three committees” is many times better than “Led the creation of in the new company-wide policies”, which is so vague it could mean writing a roster for filling the about student, office dishwasher. I like a bullet list of facts in the resumes I review, and putting that at the very top has always proved successful in century science my job applications. Achieved $5million in sales in 2006. Worked on 6 university research facilities.
Supervise and mentor 10 junior personnel. About Responsibility? Etc. I’m not a fan of using inflated “office language” in place of these facts. This research into the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of privacy rights submitting stories for publication. This research into the job/company before creating a tailor-made resume reminds me a lot of submitting stories for essay student, publication. The more you know… You mentioned honors and awards. Is it okay to put in academic ones? I’ve been in the workforce for only a couple of years, so my experience is pretty limited.
Also, some of my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in in the poisonwood bible nature. These gave me valuable leadership, project management and essay about teaching experience. Would that be okay to james essay put into my resume? You mentioned honors and awards. Is it okay to essay student put in rights workplace academic ones? I’ve been in the workforce for essay, only a couple of years, so my experience is pretty limited. Also, some of essay rights workplace my affiliations/volunteer work are religious in nature. These gave me valuable leadership, project management and essay about responsibility teaching experience.
Would that be okay to research papers on underage drinking put into my resume? Thanks! I am always amazed at the poor quality of resumes submitted by many job applicants. Responsibility? If you are not willing to put forth a little effort to thesis get the essay student responsibility, job, it really makes me question your overall work ethic and your motivation to essay rights workplace have a successful career. I think people should stop including their “objective” in their resumes.
Obviously the objective is to essay about student responsibility get a job in a related field. Frequently, applicants include nothing useful as their objective with things like “To find a position in the customer service sector that will utilize my people skills etc etc… This type of information is james why the blue better left in your cover letter. One thing you didn’t mention is essay about student personal interests. I have a short list on my resume, and century science it is great for building rapport and essay responsibility starting the conversation, especially if your interviewer shares similar interests. For the jean blue essay, most part, this advice is great. But as guinness416 noted, your “bad job attributes” and “better job attributes” need work. About Student? “Chaired three committees” is awesome to me as an employer. It conveys specific information. Body Essay? “Led the creation of new company-wide policies”, as guinness said, could mean anything. Your advice about including a pitch instead of an objective statement are spot-on. Objective statements are a waste of space.
I have no idea who is perpetuating the idea that they’re a good idea, but they’re not. I’ve lurked here for quite a while now and essay student responsibility thought i’d throw in the opinion of a HR professional. Body Systems? In terms of the “bad attributes and good attributes” a better thing would be to student mesh the body, two together; “Chaired three committes leading to the creation of new company-wide policies” I agree with Money that objective statements are becoming a thing of the past. @Rita, In terms of the religios nature of your awards/affiliations, it is up to you. However, you should be ready to student have comments made about this (of course it would depend on the industry you are in) If I eliminate everything that isn’t highly relevant or impressive, I’d be down to almost nothing! I have had two low-wage dead-end jobs over the last 25 years. What’s impressive about thesis in business, that? I can SAY I have certain skills, but if those wkills have never been relevant to my employment, how are employers going to essay student responsibility receive that claim? There are non-employment attributes I could include (e.g. Century Science Coursework? I was on the board of my neighborhood association and a local food co-op) but wouldn’t that be excessive reaching in the context of scant job achievement?
(Yes, “excessive reaching” itself is essay responsibility excessive reaching. Irony intended.) Any opinions to the idea that pitch and/or objective statements are both unneeded? The pitch is how you should begin your cover letter. I agree the resume should be tailored to the job opening, but I am no fan of poisonwood bible any opening paragraphs. I do list my most relevant abilities on the top depending on the job, which could be seen as a bulleted form of a pitch.
Good stuff, Trent. Especially original (and after my own heart) is about student starting in a text editor…not letting someone else’s (poor) cookie cutter form dictate your personal marketing document. One thing that bears repeating and CANNOT be stressed enough: tailor your resume individually for each and every job opportunity you’re applying for. Sky Is Essay? Unless you’re applying to manager of responsibility cereal branding at General Mills and james jean why the blue essay want to impress people with your mass marketing skills, no hiring manager will waste time with your resume unless ever inch of it sings your praises for the one job you’re being considered for. Student? If you really want the job, take the time to figure out ocr 21st century science which of your strengths are appropriate for THAT job, and move them to the very top of your resume and eliminate everything that’s not relevant or interesting to the hiring manager. Despite my firm belief in the philosophy of the Purple Cow, my instinct is to save the essay about student responsibility, personal interests for the interview. Resumes are screened by computers and/or HR people for keyword richness, not your hobbies, and you can really only turn people off at coursework help the scanning stage. “Trent juggles? Oh no, the hiring manager’s mom was killed by a juggler. Pass.” Wait until you get the interview, look around the manager’s office for “no juggling” signs or voodoo dolls of responsibility clowns, then bring up your interests that make you remarkable and papers on underage drinking memorable.
I would refuse to hire you on essay student responsibility the grounds that “throughput” is not a real word, and I wouldn’t want to have to work with someone who uses abstruse business-speak instead of antithesis in the poisonwood real words. Throughput is for essay about responsibility, sure a real world, usually used in context of computers, processors… How much data can be put through how quickly. Funny you should bring this up. I came across an in business interesting resume format the other night. I recognize the shameless blog plug, but it’s located on my site at entry titled “Resumes Suck. (Until Now)”. Rick Turoczy of the More Than a Living blog has an awesome format. Great post. For those of us who are recent graduates and haven’t had much experience putting a resume together, firing up Word or downloading a resume format is usually the first step. It’s usually a fear of the formality of the document and not having a solid grasp of what to include in it. I like how the personal interests were actually not mentioned.
Some interests are frankly lame, and a resume can only ‘describe’ so much of you. An interview is a much better way to show how interesting of essay about student responsibility a person you are. I?d further reccomend that people, Trent included, that are interested in this to check out the essay, Manager Tools podcast and website. They have a podcast titled “Your resume stinks!” and I believe they know it. The hosts have worked in essay about responsibility corporate recruiting for many years, specifically in technical jobs.
Minimum wage, having a steady job history looks good, no matter what the job. It looks especially good for entry-level jobs where employers experience a lot of problems with absenteeism and tardiness–just showing up and actually doing your work impresses them. And absolutely, positively include any actual experience related to the jobs you want. Just because you didn’t get paid, doesn’t mean it’s not work experience. In fact, if you can get volunteer gigs that require the skills you want to use in your next job, that’s a good plan. Did you accomplish anything impressive on these boards? If not, can you now, now that you know how things are currently done and have a better idea of the big picture? Another approach is to get an entry-level job in a company that also hires people for the kind of employee privacy workplace job you want. Essay About Student Responsibility? I’ve even heard of people crossing the invisible barriers–I know an assembly line worker who got a job as an james jean sky is blue essay engineer in the same firm just by about student responsibility, speaking up at james essay a meeting once (in addition to doing awesome work). Another approach is to join the professional associations that people who have the responsibility, job you want next belong to and do committee work so that you can meet people and get good advice on papers drinking what to do next.
Thanks for a great post! Any resume advice is greatly appreciated! Good tips, though I don’t agree with step #5. You should always include a cover letter with your resume which is where your pitch should go. Essay About Student? Putting a pitch at ocr 21st science the top of your resume is essay student responsibility (or at least should be) redundant. In regards to science hobbies and personal interests, I find that to be a bit of a gray area. Professionally I don’t think that should make a difference to about responsibility whether or not someone is antithesis in the poisonwood hired.
Their life outside of the job is essay their own business. On the flip side you want to hire someone that fits with your team and common interests can be an easy way to have a conversation and find out a bit about coursework help, someone’s personality. I disagree with you, DrBdan on step #5. Generally speaking, you are right – this should most certainly be shouted out at in your cover letter – thats the blurb that is going to get the potential employer to read your resume, period. However, if you can do two different blurbs, having it at the top of student responsibility your resume will 1 – reinforce the idea, and 2 – show your employer that you didn’t just copy and paste a blurb from the ocr 21st science coursework, web, because you were able to essay about student responsibility organize your skills in two different ways. I think its a great idea to james jean why the sky is blue replace the mission statement with a pitch.
I want to add that finding a job while employed seems to be much easier than finding one when unemployed. I setup a linkedin.com page and have been using it heavily. Every time I meet someone whether we are in Boston or Bangalore I send them an student invite. Slowly but surely my network is growing and people are coming to employee privacy workplace ME to see if I will work for about, them rather than the other way around. Resumes get you in the door but if you can be proactive while you are employed you can create your own safety net! I am so glad to see resume/cv related advice, but how do you get all that data together to ocr 21st science start with? I’ve often been told to provide anecdotal evidence, but I can never remember any when called upon! Stephen’s comment that “an interview is a much better way to show how interesting of essay student a person you are” is right on. Remember, resumes get you interviews, and interviews get you jobs. Papers? Write the best resume you can, but don’t neglect interview prep.
I once interviewed a person who sounded absolutely perfect on his resume, but in his interview he was an arrogant jerk, and we never talked to him again. We hired someone with a resume that was “marginal” because of her limited experience, but in her interview it was clear she would be a terrific fit for essay student, our department. (And she was.) As a resume reviewer, I think personal interests are generally not helpful unless they demonstrate some personality trait relevant to the job — for thesis in business, example, if you run marathons, it gives me a sense that you are capable of setting goals and sticking to them. Please don’t tell me you do yoga. I do yoga. Most of the people in my office do yoga. It probably makes you a better worker.
But it’s not going to start a conversation or get you the student responsibility, job. If you can make it interesting — “Recently completed 108 sun salutations in one day to raise money for essay employee rights, victims of essay about student responsibility domestic violence” — now that gets my attention. Which also ties in to Minimum Wage’s question — serving on the board of any organization definitely counts as relevant for body, a lot of student jobs. It (hopefully) shows that you’re willing to pitch in when people need help, and that you’ve probably been in situations where you had to solve problems or make decisions as a team. You could have a whole section of your resume for on underage drinking, “Leadership Positions” that may or may not include anything from your paid employment. Hey Simple Dollar, I keep ending up here from essay about responsibility like 10 different places (MyMoneyBlog, this time it’s CodeProject!), good job on the market. There’s a line from the Tao Te Ching: “good speaking leaves nothing to pick at”, however, the essay employee privacy workplace, fact that everyone is picking at the same thing (chaired committees and objective) gives me the impression that what you’ve written is essay about student very good.
So good that “we” only essay rights, want to about responsibility “fix” two things to make it perfect. Antithesis In The Poisonwood? So congrats! :) I will add my two cents to about “Objective” discussion: Write a good objective or leave it out body essay . About Student? If you don’t think that you can write a good one, leave it out. Privacy Rights Workplace? I like mine, it’s brief, it’s distinct, it says that I’m here and essay student responsibility I’m going there. The same things go for personal interests.
My interests include Magic: the Gathering Pro Tour Competitor. This isn’t small potatoes, this is big money, I got a free flight to Geneva! I’ve won money at james jean essay an amateur open event and I’m one of the top-ranked players in Canada (in Limited). In a brain field, this is a relevant hobby. Though I can understand the personalized resume, I rarely customize the resume b/c I’m usually looking for essay about student, the same type of ocr 21st century science help job.
As a computer consultant, the 71 different buzzwords and about responsibility TLAs on my two page resume are all quite specific. I usually just spend extra time (1+ hours) to customize the cover letter. Interesting about the font type (Georgia) but you don’t reference the font size. Research? What is considered a readable font size? Font size = minimum 12. Objective. hmmm what if the essay responsibility, employer is filling 6 different positions and HR gets ALL the resumes. Which resume goes with which job? Objective: Programmer (Job Title) or using a profile instead of an objective? Minimum Wage: with 25 years of rights work experience you have a truckload of transferable skills (hard and soft skills).
The biggest part of about responsibility making a resume work is publishing it. I would absolutely work to get a website or publish through a networking company such as LinkedIn. I’ve not had to send my resume to anyone in years. Definitely agree with point # 0 2. Do not use Microsoft Templates to ensure that your resume stands out science help from the student, crowd and thesis be sure to research the job before applying for it and this way you will be able to create a customized resume which is cognizant to the needs of the job and hence ensure at about responsibility least a interview. Every time I write a resume, I don’t feel good about why the sky is, it.
But when there’s a call for an interview, I think there’s a hope for me. My resume is not too bad. But what is a value of good resume without the skill for an interview. So, I basically think, a good resume is useless without a good skill for an interview. Resume constructing tips found here really great. Definitely i will follow some of them.Thanks for essay student, sharing useful information for job seekers. Whatever your taste, this is a great story! Bingo! I love this blog…just bookmarked it. Keep it coming. These tips helped me to essay make perfect resume and essay about student responsibility i got my job finally, all credits goes to you..thanks a Lot.
Any experienced resume reviewer can advise on james blue essay the best way to about responsibility name a resume? Thanks. Heya i’m for the first time here. I came across this board and I find It really useful it helped me. out a lot. I hope to give something back and aid others. like you helped me. Good information. Lucky me I ran across your website by accident (stumbleupon). I have saved as a favorite for later! Just sign up to The Simple Dollar Daily and start saving today.
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Duties and Responsibilities of a Student - GCSE English - Marked by
A Christmas Carol, Charles Dickens - Essay. A Christmas Carol Charles Dickens. The following entry presents criticism on Dickens's novella A Christmas Carol (1843). See also Charles Dickens Short Story Criticism , A Tale of Two Cities Criticism , Little Dorrit Criticism , Our Mutual Friend Criticism , and Hard Times Criticism . A Christmas Carol (1843) is one of the most recognizable stories in essay responsibility, English literature. With its numerous literary, stage, television, radio, and century science help, cinematic adaptations, the essay responsibility tale has become a holiday classic, and the character Ebenezer Scrooge has become a cultural icon.
First published in 1843, the novella garnered immediate critical and commercial attention and is credited with reviving interest in charitable endeavors, the possible perils of research on underage, economic success, and essay about student, festive traditions of the Christmas season. It is the first work in antithesis, Dickens's series of Christmas stories known collectively as the Christmas Books, as well as the most popular and enduring. Plot and essay student, Major Characters. Set in in business, the 1840s on Christmas Eve, A Christmas Carol chronicles the essay student responsibility personal transformation of the protagonist, Ebenezer Scrooge, the proprietor of a London counting house. A wealthy, elderly man, Scrooge is considered miserly and century science, misanthropic: he has no wife or children; he throws out student, two men collecting for charity; he bullies and underpays his loyal clerk, Bob Cratchit; and papers on underage drinking, he dismisses the Christmas dinner invitation of his kind nephew, Fred. Moreover, Scrooge is a strong supporter of the Poor Law of 1834, which allowed the poor to essay student, be interned in workhouses. As he prepares for bed on Christmas Eve in his solitary, dark chambers, Scrooge is visited by the ghost of his former partner, Jacob Marley. In life Marley was very similar in attitude and temperament to Scrooge: remote, cruel, and parsimonious. In Business. In death he has learned the value of compassion and student, warns Scrooge to reform his ways before it is too late.
Marley announces that Scrooge will be visited by three more specters: the Spirits of james jean sky is blue essay, Christmas Past, Present, and Yet to Come. Essay Student Responsibility. The Ghost of Christmas Past takes Scrooge back to his unhappy childhood, revealing that the young boy's experiences with poverty and abandonment inspired a desire to succeed and gain material advantage. Unfortunately, Scrooge's burgeoning ambition and greed destroyed his relationship with his fiancee and his friends. The Ghost of Christmas Present is represented by on underage drinking a hearty, genial man who reminds Scrooge of the joy of human companionship, which he has rejected in favor of his misanthropic existence. Finally, the Ghost of Christmas Yet to student, Come appears in a dark robe and shrouded in mystery.
Silently, the ghost reveals the ambivalent reaction to papers, news of Scrooge's own death. Essay About Responsibility. Scrooge realizes that he will die alone and without love, and that he has the power and money to help those around him—especially Bob Cratchit's ailing son, Tiny Tim. Scrooge begs the ghost for another chance and wakes in his bed on Christmas morning, resolved to changing his life by being generous and loving to his family, employees, and the poor. Thesis. A Christmas Carol has been deemed a biting piece of about student, social commentary by some. Critics have underscored the scathing criticism of 1840s London, an economically and body systems, socially stratified city that Dickens believed imprisoned its poor and oppressed its lower classes. The prevailing socio-economic theory of essay about student, that time held that anyone who was in debt should be put in a poorhouse. In his story, Dickens contended that the reformation of such a materialistic, shallow society can be achieved gradually through the spiritual transformation of each individual. Research On Underage Drinking. The story is well regarded for its expression of a fundamental faith in student, humanity and its unflagging censure of social injustice, which was inspired by Dickens's troubled background and his visit to the Cornish tin mines where he observed young children laboring under appalling conditions. As Scrooge transforms from systems, a cruel, embittered miser to a kindly philanthropist, Dickens advocates a more forgiving, generous society that values spiritual growth, not material wealth. Essay Student. Other major thematic concerns in A Christmas Carol include the century science coursework help role of memory, the importance of family, and the soul-deadening effect of greed on the human spirit.
Upon its initial publication, A Christmas Carol was greeted with mixed reviews. Some commentators derided the tale as too sentimental and laden with exaggeration; other critics maintained that A Christmas Carol lacked the complexity of Dickens's later work. Yet the novella remains a Christmas favorite. About. Commentators praise Dickens's evocative portrayal of antithesis poisonwood bible, 1840s London and his passionate exploration of social and political issues. Dickens's fervent belief in social justice as depicted through A Christmas Carol is credited with inspiring an outpouring of charitable endeavors during his time and a revival of Christmas spirit and traditional celebrations.
Critics have also explored the fairy-tale and gothic elements in A Christmas Carol, and about student, many praise Dickens's use of wry humor in in business, the story. The relevance and power of essay about student responsibility, Scrooge's transformation from forlorn old niggard to benignant philanthropist is regarded as the key to the novella's unflagging popular appeal. Several scholars have debated the nature of Scrooge's conversion, which is known as “the Scrooge problem.” Some critics, including Edmund Wilson, conclude that the century transformation is a temporary one; others have maintained that it is total and irrevocable. Scrooge's metanoia has also been placed within its historical and literary context, and critics have related it to the religious revival then fervent in nineteenth-century England. A few full-length studies of the novella have traced the essay about student responsibility impact of the story on ocr 21st coursework help, English and American culture and have discussed the copious imitations, adaptations, and modernized versions of the essay student responsibility tale. Access our A Christmas Carol Study Guide for Free. Sketches by Boz [as Boz] 1836. * A Christmas Carol 1843. * The Cricket on the Hearth 1845. Jean Sky Is Blue. * The Battle of Life 1846. About. * The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain 1848. Reprinted Pieces 1858. Body Systems Essay. The Uncommercial Traveller 1861.
The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club [as Boz] (novel) 1837. Oliver Twist (novel) 1838. The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickelby (novel) 1839. Barnaby Rudge (novel) 1841. The Old Curiosity Shop (novel) 1841. American Notes for General Circulation (travel essay) 1842. The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit (novel) 1844. Pictures from essay student, Italy (travel essay) 1846. Dealings with the Firm of james jean why the blue, Dombey and Son (novel) 1848. The Personal History of essay about, David Copperfield (novel) 1850. Bleak House (novel) 1853.
Hard Times for These Times (novel) 1854. Little Dorrit (novel) 1857. A Tale of Two Cities (novel) 1859. Great Expectations (novel) 1861. Our Mutual Friend (novel) 1865. James Jean Blue. No Thoroughfare [with Wilkie Collins] (drama) 1867.
The Mystery of Edwin Drood (unfinished novel) 1870. *These works were collected in student responsibility, and published as Christmas Books in research on underage drinking, 1852. SOURCE: “Thackeray on Dickens,” in Famous Reviews: Selected and Edited with Introductory Notes, by R. Brimley Johnson, Sir Isaac Pitman Sons, Ltd., 1914, pp. 469–73. [ In the following review, originally published in 1844, Thackeray applauds the popular appeal of A Christmas Carol.] MR. TITMARSH, IN SWITZERLAND, TO MR. YORKE. … This introduction, then, will have prepared you for essay about, an exceedingly humane and laudatory notice of the packet of works which you were good enough to send me, and which, though they doubtless contain a great deal that the critic would not write (from the ocr 21st century science coursework extreme delicacy of his taste and the vast range of his. (The entire section is 1716 words.) Get Free Access to student responsibility, this A Christmas Carol Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to employee privacy, unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.
Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in essay about, one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free.
SOURCE: “ A Christmas Carol Criticizes England's Economic System,” in Reading on Charles Dickens, edited by Clarice Swisher, The Greenhaven Press, 1998, pp. 86–93. [ In the following excerpt from research, a 1952 article published in the American Scholar, Johnson deems Dickens's novella as a biting critique of nineteenth-century England's economic system. ] Everyone knows Dickens's Christmas Carol for its colorful painting of about student responsibility, a rosy fireside good cheer and coursework, warmth of about student, feeling, made all the more vivid by the contrasting chill wintry darkness in which its radiant scenes are framed. Most readers realize too how characteristic of all Dickens's sentiments about. (The entire section is thesis in business, 2894 words.) Get Free Access to this A Christmas Carol Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: “Dickens Time and Again,” in student, Dickens Studies Annual, Vol.
2, 1971, pp. 163–96. [ In the following essay, Patten examines the sudden conversion of employee rights, Scrooge, contending that it is related to the surge in popularity of religious tracts during the 1840s. ] My purpose was, in a whimsical kind of masque which the good humour of the season justified, to awaken some loving and student, forbearing thoughts, never out of season in antithesis, a Christian land. I have the happiness of believing that I did not wholly miss it. —Charles Dickens, Preface to the Cheap Edition, Christmas Books 1. (The entire section is responsibility, 18999 words.) SOURCE: “The Ceremony of Innocence: Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, ” in PMLA, Vol. 90, No.
1, 1975, pp. 22–31. [ In the following essay, Gilbert considers the “Scrooge problem,” or the issue of the credibility of Scrooge's conversion during the course of A Christmas Carol.] As in their birth, wherein they are not guilty … It is impossible to get into a serious discussion of Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol without sooner or later having to confront “the Scrooge problem.” Edmund Wilson stated that problem succinctly. (The entire section is 7519 words.) Michael Patrick Hearn (essay date 1976) SOURCE: An introduction to The Annotated Christmas Carol, Clarkson N. Potter, 1976, pp. 1–51. [ In the following introductory essay, Hearn places Dickens's novella within a literary, political, and historical context and recounts the circumstances surrounding the publication of the story as well as the critical reaction to bible, it. ] A Christmas Carol remains the most popular work of essay, England's most popular novelist, and it has had something of a life of its own beyond its author's reputation. Should all of in business, Charles Dickens' marvelous creations, from Mr. Pickwick to Edwin Drood, be suddenly threatened with extinction, the story of Mr. Scrooge would certainly survive. (The entire section is 24443 words.)
SOURCE: “Notes from essay about responsibility, Charles Dickens's Christmas Carol, ” in Interpretation, Vol. Blue. 7, No. 1, 1978, pp. 52–73. [ In the essay about responsibility following essay, Anastaplo examines the timing of and the reasons for employee workplace, Scrooge's conversion. ] (The entire section is 8949 words.) SOURCE: “Fairy-Tale Form in A Christmas Carol, ” in Readings on Charles Dickens, edited by Clarice Swisher, The Greenhaven Press, 1998, pp. 74–81. [ In the following excerpt from Stone's 1979 study Dickens and the Invisible World: Fairy Tales, Fantasy, and Novel-Making, Stone asserts that Dickens uses fairy-tale elements in about student responsibility, A Christmas Carol.] Dickens wrote five Christmas books: A Christmas Carol (1843), The Chimes (1844), The Cricket on the Hearth (1845), The Battle of Life (1846), and The Haunted Man (1848). … The Christmas books draw their innermost energies from fairy tales: they exploit fairy-tale themes. (The entire section is 2771 words.) SOURCE: “Christmas at Scrooge's,” in Victorian Fantasy, Indiana University Press, 1979, pp. 38–74. [ In the following essay, Prickett delineates the in business defining characteristics of Victorian literature and regards A Christmas Carol as a prime example of the Christmas book genre. ] The ‘internalization’ of responsibility, fantasy in the early nineteenth century meant, in effect, the body systems evolution of a new language. The worlds of dreams and nightmares, madmen and children were areas of human experience which had hitherto been all too often ignored or even denied. Their recognition helped to open up a new view of the human mind in about student responsibility, which conventional distinctions between aesthetics. (The entire section is 12438 words.)
SOURCE: “The Day of Atonement in ocr 21st science help, Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, ” in Tradition, Vol. 22, No. 3, Fall, 1986, pp. 66–76. [ In the following essay, Sable debates Dickens's familiarity with Judaism and finds parallels in essay about responsibility, Scrooge's conversion to the three main aspects of the Jewish Day of Atonement: repentance, prayer, and charity. ] A Christmas Carol is a permanent fixture in Western literature and popular culture, if only because it is james jean essay, retold at Christmas-time annually. As a morality tale it is a favorite of all age groups, not only because of its sincerity but due also to its emotional appeal. Dickens completed the work in. (The entire section is 4404 words.) SOURCE: “Retelling A Christmas Carol : Text and Culture-Text,” in American Scholar, Vol. Student. 59, Winter, 1990, pp.
109–15. [ In the following essay, Davis explores how the innumerable retellings of Dickens's novella have changed the james jean why the sky is blue essential story and have kept the tale relevant in modern times. ] —W. H. Auden, “In Memory of W. B. Essay Student. Yeats” So far from the Christmas Ghost Story being a colourable imitation of [Dickens's] book, numerous incongruities in the Carol, involving the unhinging of the whole plot, have been tastefully. In The Poisonwood. (The entire section is 4620 words.) SOURCE: “Dreams of Authority and the Authority of Dreams,” in Dreams of Authority: Freud and the Fictions of the Unconscious, Cornell University Press, 1990, pp. 17–69. [ In the following excerpt, Thomas provides a Freudian interpretation of essay student responsibility, A Christmas Carol.] A very, very brief time, and you will dismiss the recollection of body systems essay, it, gladly, as an about student responsibility unprofitable dream, from which it happened well that you awoke. —Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol. The fundamental claim Freud would make about the origin of dreams is that they are expressions by the dreamer of a wish. The wish may be. (The entire section is body, 4495 words.) SOURCE: “The Greening of Scrooge,” in about student responsibility, The Lives and Times of ocr 21st help, Ebenezer Scrooge, Yale University Press, 1990, pp. 173–212. [ In the following essay from his full-length study of Dickens's novella, Davis contrasts the British and essay responsibility, American versions, adaptations, and employee privacy, modernizations of about, A Christmas Carol.] Consciousness III sees not merely a set of political and public wrongs, such as a liberal New Dealer might have seen, but also the deeper ills that Kafka or the German expressionists or Dickens would have seen. —Charles Reich, 1970.
When one observes that we devote a. (The entire section is 14654 words.) Donald R. Burleson (essay date 1992) SOURCE: “Dickens's A Christmas Carol, ” in The Explicator, Vol. 50, No. 4, Summer, 1992, pp. On Underage. 211–12. [ In the following essay, Burleson compares the characters of Scrooge and his nephew, Fred. ] It would seem that there could be no clearer or more unambiguously delineated an opposition than that which occurs in essay about student responsibility, Dickens's A Christmas Carol when Scrooge's nephew comes to invite his uncle to Christmas dinner. The nephew delivers his oft-quoted encomium of Christmas as “a good time: a kind, forgiving, charitable, pleasant time,” and jean, Scrooge makes his own distaste for the Yuletide season abundantly plain. The opposition is one universally familiar: the. (The entire section is 571 words.) SOURCE: “Charles Dickens: The First (Interpersonal) Psychoanalyst or—A Christmas Carol: A Literary Psychoanalysis,” in about student responsibility, American Journal of Psychoanalysis, Vol. 52, No.
4, December, 1992, pp. 351–62. [ In the following essay, Shainess maintains that A Christmas Carol “is more than a story or satire—it is a literary psychoanalysis, largely of the interpersonal variety though with a hint of the essay Freudian as well.” ] Charles Dickens appeared on the British scene in 1812, approximately 300 years after Shakespeare. Essay About Student. It may seem to some an research exaggeration to connect him with the preeminent writer of all time, William Shakespeare, but I think not. Dickens was. (The entire section is 5337 words.) SOURCE: “ A Christmas Carol and the Masque,” in Studies in about student responsibility, Short Fiction, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1993, pp. 63–9. [ In the in the following essay, Butterworth probes Dickens's familiarity with the masque form and determines its influence on A Christmas Carol.] In his Preface to the First Cheap Edition of A Christmas Carol, Dickens wrote of his intention in student responsibility, writing his Christmas books of awakening some “loving and forbearing thoughts” by means of “a whimsical kind of masque” (xiv). 1 Commentators have not made much of this comment, perhaps on the assumption that Dickens's familiarity with masques could not but be slight. Research On Underage Drinking. This, however, is an. (The entire section is 2987 words.) SOURCE: “The Genres of essay about, A Christmas Carol, ” in Dickensian, Vol.
89, No. Essay Employee Privacy Rights. 3, Winter, 1993, pp. 193–203. [ In the following essay, Miller offers a stylistic analysis of essay, A Christmas Carol.] I had meant to ask some solemn questions about the james jean why the essay genre or genres of A Christmas Carol. Re-reading it has put all that out of my mind. As is always the case for essay about responsibility, me when I read anything by Dickens, the inordinate linguistic exuberance of A Christmas Carol makes all formal questions seem beside the drinking point. Essay Responsibility. I shall return to the question of genre by way of in the bible, its relation to this exuberance. First, however, what can be said about Dickens's linguistic virtuosity beyond. (The entire section is 6964 words.) SOURCE: “Dickens and the Construction of Christmas,” in History Today, Vol. 43, December, 1993, pp. 17–24. [ In the following essay, Rowell underscores the powerful religious and social overtones of A Christmas Carol, particularly the revival of Christmas traditions. ] One hundred and fifty years ago, in October 1843, Charles Dickens began the writing of one of his most popular and best-loved books, A Christmas Carol. It was written in six weeks and finished by the end of November, being fitted in in the intervals of writing the monthly parts of Martin Chuzzlewit, a work which was causing him some financial anxiety because the public did not. (The entire section is 4069 words.) SOURCE: “Spectacular Sympathy: Visuality and Ideology in Dickens's A Christmas Carol, ” in PMLA, Vol.
109, No. 2, March, 1994, pp. Essay Student. 254–65. [ In the following essay, Jaffe maintains that A Christmas Carol is “arguably Dickens's most visually evocative text” and explores the in the circular relationship between spectatorship and ideologies of identity in nineteenth-century England. ] In a well-known essay, Sergei Eisenstein describes literature in general and Dickens in particular as cinema's predecessors because of their evocation of visual effects. Literature, Eisenstein writes, provides cinema with “parents and [a] pedigree, … a past”; it is “the. Student. (The entire section is 7849 words.) Arthur P. Patterson (essay date 1994) SOURCE: “Sponging the bible Stone: Transformation in A Christmas Carol, ” in essay student responsibility, Dickens Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 4, December, 1994, pp.
172–76. [ In the following essay, Patterson contends that to “understand the significance of the Carol is to james why the sky is blue essay, integrate the psychological and its spiritual message.” ] I don't remember reading the book until my adult years, yet Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol seems always to have been with me. The Carol entered my life when I lay on the living room floor with a belly full of Christmas turkey avoiding adult conversation at my grandmother's dinner. My first recollection of the student responsibility story is in the form of the 1951. (The entire section is 2256 words.) James R. Simmons, Jr. (essay date 1995) SOURCE: “Scrooge, Falstaff, and the Rhetoric of Indigence,” in English Language Notes, Vol. 32, No. 3, March, 1995, pp. 43–6. [ In the following essay, Simmons detects the influence of William Shakespeare's character Falstaff on body systems essay, the protagonist of essay about responsibility, A Christmas Carol.] During his lifetime, Charles Dickens read a vast array of literature, and none influenced him more than the antithesis in the poisonwood plays of William Shakespeare. Dickens so revered Shakespeare's work that his friend John Forster noted that they celebrated Shakespeare's birthday “always as a festival,” 1 and in fact Dickens's prize possession was a pocket edition of Shakespeare's plays that he carried with him. Responsibility. (The entire section is essay, 1185 words.) Caroline McCracken-Flesher (essay date 1996) SOURCE: “The Incorporation of A Christmas Carol : A Tale of Seasonal Screening,” in Dickens Studies Annual, Vol. 24, 1996, pp. 93–118. [ In the following essay, McCracken-Flesher judges the impact of A Christmas Carol on the economic success of about, Christmas. ] In February 1844, just a few months after A Christmas Carol 's publication, Thackeray called the book “a national benefit, and to every man or woman who reads it a personal kindness” (Collins 149). Dickens' tale certainly has proved a national benefit, but not, perhaps, as he would have hoped or as Thackeray meant. In Britian, and particularly in America, it has benefited not so much. (The entire section is 7578 words.)
SOURCE: “The Primitive Keynesianism of Dickens's A Christmas Carol, ” in Studies in the Literary Imagination, Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring, 1997, pp. 51–66. [ In the following essay, Erickson provides a Keynesian economic interpretation of james why the sky is essay, Dickens's novella. ] In the student responsibility transformation of Ebenezer Scrooge's character and in the very appearance and production of systems, A Christmas Carol as a Christmas gift book, we can see Dickens's understanding of the essay about psychological basis of economic activity and his intuitive solutions both to the financial depression that gripped England in 1843 and also to the specter of bankruptcy that loomed over him when his readers could no. (The entire section is 6970 words.) SOURCE: A Christmas Carol and Its Adaptations: A Critical Examination of Dickens's Story and Its Productions on Screen and Television, McFarland Company, 2000, 11–36, 87–115. [ In the following excerpts, Guida considers the literary, political, and economic roots of antithesis poisonwood bible, Dickens's novella and traces the various cinematic adaptations of the story in about, the twentieth century. ] A true feast actually has nothing to do with what you eat … but with what you remember. Jeff Smith, the Frugal Gourmet. “Dickens dead?
Then will Father Christmas die too?” 1 This remark, reportedly overheard by. (The entire section is 30309 words.) Churchill, R. In The Bible. C., ed. A Bibliography of Dickensian Criticism, 1836–1975. Garland Reference Library of the essay responsibility Humanities, Vol. 12. New York: Garland Publishing, 1975, 314 p. Guide to writings about Dickens published between 1836 and thesis in business, 1975. Johnson, Edgar. Charles Dickens: His Tragedy and Triumph. 2 vols. New York: Simon Schuster, 1952.
Definitive modern biography. Johnson makes use of much previously unavailable material. Brown, John Mason. “Ghouls and Holly.” In Seeing More Things, pp. 161–67. New. (The entire section is 443 words.) A Christmas Carol Homework Help Questions.
You have asked quite a big question here, and the best way to answer it is to compare and contrast the about responsibility way that the text introduces and describes the three ghosts. You are right in being aware of. First, Dickens makes the Ghost of jean why the sky is, Christmas Past part of an effective story by making him a vivid character. For one thing, the Ghost's appearance is quite distinctive and memorable. He wears a. In stave one of A Christmas Carol, the reader is presented with a number of scenarios which Dickens uses to convey Scrooge's character. In the essay responsibility opening paragraphs, Dickens talks about Marley's. Ignorance and Want represent society’s abandonment of the poor and the consequences of that abandonment. Above all else, A Christmas Carol is allegorical.
Dickens was a strong proponent of. Dickens was inspired to write A Christmas Carol after reading about the antithesis bible plight of poor children in the industrial towns of essay about responsibility, Northern England. As a result, we find many descriptions of poverty in the.
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Emilio Jacinto#8217;s Trading Cooperative. A1457 Cooperatives: Principles and practices in the 21st century Kimberly A. Essay Responsibility? Zeuli and Robert Cropp ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE: The “twin pines” is a familiar symbol for cooperatives in the United States. The Cooperative League of the USA, which eventually became the National Cooperative Business Association (NCBA), adopted it as their logo in essay employee rights workplace 1922. The pine tree is an ancient symbol of endurance and immortality. Essay? The two pines represent mutual cooperation—people helping people. COOPERATIVES: ii Chapter 1 An introduction to cooperatives 1 Chapter 2 Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world 5. Chapter 3 Cooperative history, trends, and essay employee privacy rights workplace, laws in the United States 59 Chapter 8 Procedures for organizing a cooperative 69 Chapter 9 A summary of cooperative benefits and limitations 77 Notes 81 Glossary 85 Cooperative resources IN 49 Chapter 7 Cooperative financial management PRACTICES 39 Chapter 6 Cooperative roles, responsibilities, and communication #038; 27 Chapter 5 Alternative business models in the United States PRINCIPLES 15 Chapter 4 Cooperative classification Contents Publication notes ? 89 THE 21ST CENTURY i Publication notes This publication is the about responsibility fourth and most extensive revision of the Marvin A.
Schaars’ text, Cooperatives, Principles and Practices, University of Wisconsin Extension—Madison, Publication A1457, July 1980. What has come to privacy, be known simply as “the Schaars book,” was originally written in 1936 by Chris L. Christensen, Asher Hobson, Henry Bakken, R. K. Froker, and Marvin Schaars, all faculty in the Department of about student Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison. Since its first publication, the Schaars book has served as a basic reference for cooperative members and antithesis poisonwood bible, leaders, cooperative instructors and development specialists, and essay student, students of cooperatives throughout the United. Although we focus on ocr 21st coursework help, cooperative businesses in essay student the United States, and draw most of our references from the systems agricultural sector, most of the book’s content is pertinent to cooperatives anywhere, in any sector. Readers are encouraged to seek out other publications that deal more extensively with cooperative laws in their own states and essay about, countries, and provide more detailed information on consumer, service and worker-owned cooperatives and systems essay, credit unions. ii Kimberly Zeuli and Robert Cropp, Assistant Professor and Professor Emeritus in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, re responsible for essay about student all of the editing and most of the revised text. The following individuals also contributed to various chapters: David Erickson, Director of Member Relations, Wisconsin Federation of Cooperatives E. G. Thesis In Business? Nadeau, Director of Research, Planning and Development, Cooperative Development Services David Trechter, Professor, University of Wisconsin— River Falls Richard Vilstrup, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science and Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison This revision would not have been possible without generous funding from The Cooperative. Foundation, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER 1 ? An introduction to cooperatives According to the International Co-operative Alliance (ICA): a cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and essay about student responsibility, aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise.
Cooperative leaders around the world recognize the ICA, a non-governmental organization with over 230 member organAlthough the word “cooperaizations from over 100 countries, as a leading tive” can be applied to many uthority on antithesis bible, cooperative definition and values. 2 different types of group activities, in this publication The ICA definition recognizes the essential the term is used to reference element of cooperatives: membership is voluntary. Coercion is the antithesis of cooperation. Persons a formal business model, compelled to act contrary to essay student, their wishes are not which has relatively recent origins. The earliest coopera- truly cooperating. True cooperation with others arises from a belief in antithesis poisonwood bible mutual help; it can’t be tive associations were created in Europe and North dictated. In authentic cooperatives, persons join The first signs of. America during the about student 17th and voluntarily and james jean why the blue essay, have the freedom to quit the essay student responsibility cooporganized hunting 18th centuries. These associ- erative at any time. 3 The forced collectives prevaactivity based around lent in the former Soviet Union, for example, were ations were precursors to communities are associated with not true cooperatives. cooperatives. The pioneers Homo erectus, of the Rochdale Society in Another widely accepted cooperative definition is modern human 19th-century England are ancestors who lived the one adopted by the United States Department between 500,000 and celebrated for launching the f Agriculture (USDA) in 1987: A cooperative is a 1. 5 million years ago modern cooperative user-owned, user-controlled business that distributes in Africa. movement.
The unique conbenefits on the basis of use. This definition captures tribution of early cooperative organizers in what are generally considered the three primary England was codifying a guiding set of principles cooperative principles: user ownership, user and instigating the creation of new laws that control, and proportional distribution of benefits. helped foster cooperative business development. Thesis In Business? The “user-owner” principle implies that the student responsibility people. Today, cooperatives are found in nearly all countries. Chapters 2 and 3 trace the body essay remarkable history who use the co-op (members) help finance the essay about responsibility coof cooperative development internationally and in op and therefore, own the why the sky is co-op. Members are responsible for providing at least some of the the United States. cooperative’s capital. The equity capital contribution of about student responsibility each member should be in equal proportion to that member’s use (patronage) of the coop. This shared financing creates joint ownership The cooperative model has been adapted to thesis in business, (part of the ICA cooperative definition). numerous and varied businesses. In 1942 Ivan G roups of individuals around the world and throughout time have worked together in pursuit of student responsibility common goals.
Examples of cooperation, or collective action, can be traced back to our prehistoric predecessors who recognized the advantages of hunting, gathering, and james essay, living in groups rather than on their own. What is a cooperative? Emelianoff, a respected cooperative scholar, remarked that “the diversity of cooperatives is kaleidoscopic and their variability is literally infinite. ”1 As a consequence of this diversity, no universally accepted definition of a cooperative exists. Two definitions, however, are commonly used. About? PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The “user-control” concept means that members of the co-op govern the antithesis poisonwood bible business directly by voting on significant and long-term business decisions and indirectly through their representatives on essay about student responsibility, the board of directors. Cooperative statutes and bylaws usually dictate that only active co-op members (those who use the co-op) can become voting directors, although non-members sometimes serve on boards in a non-voting, advisory THE 21ST CENTURY 1 capacity. Advisory directors are becoming more common in ocr 21st science large agricultural cooperatives in the. United States, where complex financial and essay about student, business operations require the expertise of financial and industry experts. Only co-op members can vote to elect their board of directors and on other cooperative actions.
Voting rights are generally tied to privacy rights, membership status—usually one-member, one-vote—and not to the level of investment in or patronage of the cooperative. Cooperative law in a number of states in the United States and in other countries, however, also permits proportional voting. Essay About Student Responsibility? Instead of essay privacy rights workplace one vote per member, voting rights are based on the volume of business the member transacted he previous year with the responsibility cooperative. Generally, however, there is also a maximum number of votes any member may cast to prevent control by a minority of members. For example, a grain cooperative might permit one vote to antithesis bible, be cast for each 1,000 bushels of grain marketed the year before, but any single member would be limited to a maximum of essay about student ten votes. Democratic control is maintained by tying voting rights to patronage. Antithesis Poisonwood Bible? Equitable voting rights, or democratic control (as written in the ICA definition), are a hallmark of cooperatives. Student? “Distribution of benefits on the basis of use,” escribes the principle of jean why the blue essay proportionality, another key foundation for cooperatives. Members should share the essay responsibility benefits, costs, and risks of doing business in equal proportion to their patronage. The proportional basis is fair, easily explained (transparent), and entirely feasible from an operational standpoint.
To do otherwise distorts the individual contributions of members and diminishes their incentives to join and patronize the in the cooperative. 2 Co-op benefits may include better prices for goods and services, improved services, and dependable sources of inputs and markets for outputs. Most ooperatives also realize annual net profits, all or part of which are returned to members in proportion to their patronage (thus, they are aptly called patronage refunds). Cooperatives can also return a portion of essay responsibility their profits as dividends on investment. In the United States, however, federal and most state statutes set an 8 percent maximum on annual dividend payments. The purpose of these limits is to assure that the benefits of a cooperative accrue to those who use it most rather than to body systems, those who may have the most invested; the importance of capital is essay about subordinated. Today, some co-op leaders and scholars consider his dividend restriction arbitrary and harmful to cooperatives. From their perspective, the 8 percent maximum makes investing in cooperatives less attractive than investing in other forms of business. It makes cooperatives less competitive as well, especially in the agricultural processing sector, which requires a lot of essay privacy capital for start-up and growth.
An overview of the federal laws that govern cooperatives in the United States is included in chapter 3. Why cooperate? People who organize and belong to cooperatives do so for a variety of economic, social, and even political reasons. Cooperating with others has often proven to be a satisfactory way of achieving one’s own objectives while at the same time assisting others in student achieving theirs. Farmers create farm supply and systems, marketing cooperatives to help them maximize their net profits. This requires both effective marketing of their products for better prices as well as keeping input costs as low as possible. The farmers recognize that they are usually more efficient and knowledgeable as producers than as marketers or purchasers. By selling and buying in larger volumes they can also usually achieve better prices. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER.
Employees organize bargaining associations and about responsibility, labor unions to negotiate collectively with management and owners. In some cases, employees form worker-owned cooperatives. Research On Underage? As the name suggests, a worker-owned cooperative is owned and controlled by essay student responsibility, its employees. 4 Employees establish bargaining units and cooperatives in the hopes of increasing their wages and century coursework help, fringe benefits, improving their general working conditions, and ensuring job security. Cooperatives do not, as is sometimes assumed, contradict the goals of capitalism. If that were the case, cooperatives would not play such an important role in essay the American economy. About 48,000 cooperatives, operating in thesis in business nearly every business sector imaginable, serve 120 million members, or roughly 4 out of 10 Americans. 5 The top 100 cooperatives in essay about student the United States, ranked by revenue, individually generated at least $346 million in revenue during 2002 and in the aggregate, $119 billion. 6 They represent agriculture, finance, grocery, hardware, healthcare, recreation, and energy industries (figure 1. Thesis? 1).
An introduction to about responsibility, cooperatives Consumer cooperatives are established to sell the thesis in business products a group of consumers want but cannot find elsewhere at affordable prices. The consumer embers are primarily interested in essay about responsibility improving their purchasing power—the quantity of goods and services they can buy with their income. They naturally wish to get as much as possible for their money in essay terms of essay about responsibility quantity and quality. As owners, the members have a say in what products their stores carry. Employee Privacy Workplace? 1 ? Cooperatives are especially important to essay student responsibility, agriculture. In 2002, 3,140 agricultural cooperatives provided roughly 3. 1 million farmers (many farmers are members of more than one cooperative) with agricultural marketing, farm supplies, and body essay, other farm-related services. Student Responsibility? They captured 28 percent of the market share.
Figure 1. 1. Top 100 revenue generating cooperatives in the U. S. by sector, 2002 PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 3 In terms of non-agricultural cooperatives, 84 million Americans are members of 9,569 credit unions, 865 electric co-ops serve 37 million people in 47 states, over 1. 5 million families live in housing cooperatives, and over 3 million people are members of 5,000 food cooperatives. 8 The involvement of so many people in james why the cooperatives in such a highly competitive economy reflects the general satisfaction of members toward their companies and the apparent efficiency and solid inancial performance of these businesses. Chapter 4 provides a more comprehensive discussion of the various types of student responsibility cooperatives and the extent of their economic success in the United States. In short, cooperatives are organized to serve member needs and are focused on generating member benefits rather than returns to employee privacy rights workplace, investors. This member-driven orientation makes them fundamentally different from other corporations. About? Additional cooperative structural characteristics and guiding principles further distinguish them from other business models. In most countries, the cooperative model represents only one of several ifferent ways a business can choose to legally organize. Chapter 5 presents a comparison of the six major alternative business models in the United States. Cooperative management and jean sky is blue essay, development To prosper, cooperatives must be well organized, well financed, well managed, and governed well by a committed membership. They must be progressive, adapting to changing business climates, and responsive to their members’ changing needs.
Members, the board of directors, and essay, management each have responsibilities within the cooperative. Strong, viable cooperatives require all three groups to do their share. Chapter 6 describes each group’s unique and important role. 4 Although capital, employees, business volume, and good management practices are all very important for successful operations, a co-op’s members are its most important asset. Cooperative success also hinges on effective member education and communication. Indeed, providing education, training, and information to members is one of the james jean why the sky is essay seven cooperative principles adopted by the ICA.
The unique education needs of cooperatives and the essential elements for a successful education and communication program are also discussed in chapter 6. Cooperative financing is also critical and in today’s complex cooperative organizations it can be quite complicated. About Student? Adequate capital is one of the fundamental principles of sound business operation and at the same time one of the biggest challenges facing cooperatives today. Financing options must be consistent with principles of in business cooperation as well as with federal and essay responsibility, state laws. Jean Sky Is Blue Essay? Chapter 7 lays out the about student responsibility main concepts behind cooperative financing, including alternative sources of capital and ocr 21st science, equity redemption plans. About? As with other business forms, cooperatives should be established only to meet a well-defined need in coursework help he market. Before cooperatives are created, advance research should be done by essay, a steering committee to ensure sufficient support by other potential members in the community. Chapter 8 discusses in greater detail the procedure for organizing cooperatives. A good feasibility study, strong membership drives, and a comprehensive business plan are essential ingredients.
A final analysis of the cooperative model’s benefits and limitations, to members and the broader community, is presented in chapter 9. COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Revolutionary roots in England The first cooperative businesses created in Europe rose during periods of great social upheaval and distress caused by dramatic shifts in agricultural and science, industrial production practices. Prior to the Industrial Revolution (about 1750-1850), most families in essay about responsibility England and other parts of antithesis bible Europe were largely self-sufficient, creating enough food and goods for their subsistence and small amounts for trading. The Industrial Revolution introduced the factory system of production and was marked by a rapid succession of remarkable inventions that accelerated the industrialization of business. Examples of student responsibility inventions during this period include smelting iron with coal instead of charcoal, the antithesis in the poisonwood otton gin and power loom, and the steam engine. Essay Responsibility? The writings of Adam Smith at the time, especially his advocacy of the laissez faire principle (no government intervention in the economy), further spurred the revolution. The industrial system gradually replaced cottage industries and home-based production.
Workers were required to move into cities to find work. Away from land, their families were increasingly integrated into a market economy; instead of pro- PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN ducing most of their household requirements, especially food, they had no other choice but to purchase them. Advances in production were not, nfortunately, accompanied by essay privacy rights workplace, fair labor standards. Workers were typically paid very low wages and were subjected to harsh working conditions. 10 People remaining in rural areas were not much better off. An agricultural revolution was already well underway in the 18th century. The introduction of new cultivation methods and crop varieties supported a dramatic change in land tenure patterns.
Scattered, small plots of farmland were aggregated into large, enclosed estates, primarily for the purpose of grazing sheep and essay about responsibility, other live- The historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and conomic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in times and places of thesis economic stress and about student, social upheaval. 9 stock. Between 1760 and 1843, nearly seven million acres of agricultural land in England were enclosed in estates. As a result, large numbers of small farmers were driven from their land into neighboring towns and villages with few remaining jobs. Ocr 21st Century Science Help? A movement towards greater freedom of expression was another hallmark of this revolutionary period. The citizens of England began to publicly dissent with government policies, taking issue with the essay about status quo and systems, demanding more personal ights. Therefore, the about widespread poverty, unemployment, and general social deterioration that were left in the wake of the industrial and agricultural revolutions were met with a public outcry to the government for improved working and living conditions.
THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world T he historical development of cooperative businesses cannot be disconnected from the social and economic forces that shaped them. Co-ops then, as now, were created in research times and places of economic stress and social upheaval. 9 Ancient records and about, archeological discoveries oint to the existence of cooperative organizations created by early civilizations in diverse parts of the world (China, Greece, Egypt, etc. ). But it is the founders of the Rochdale Society in 19th century England who are celebrated for launching the body systems essay modern cooperative movement. The Rochdale pioneers, and the early European cooperative thinkers and organizers who laid the foundation for their success, are responsible for student responsibility codifying a guiding set of principles that helped guide the development of cooperatives across the world. 2 ? 5 Early cooperative societies Robert Owen and In the absence of public assistance, the james jean blue people of. Charles Fourier— Europe established various types of self-help organizations. Mutual fire insurance companies Cooperative visionaries existed in London and Paris as early as 1530, although the first highly successful and wellknown example was organized in England in essay about 1696, the Amicable Contributionship. 11 The people of England also created Mutual Aid Societies (they eventually became known as Friendly Societies) that offered financial payments and assistance to members in times of sickness, unemployment, or death.
12 By the mid-18th century many well-established societies were already in operation. They were legalized with the jean why the blue essay passing of the first Friendly Society Act (also called the Rose Act) in 1793. A number of bills were introduced in the 19th century to encourage Friendly Societies since they lessened the public burden. 13 Workers organized labor unions to bargain with employers for more favorable working conditions and to lobby the essay about student responsibility government for improved labor legislation. Cooperative or quasi-cooperative industrial businesses were in operation in England by 1760.
Most were consumer-controlled organizations focused on flour milling and baking industries. Cooperative orn mills for grinding flour appeared in thesis a number of cities shortly after the turn of the about responsibility 19th century to cut the cost of flour and prevent tampering by greedy millers. Purchasing cooperatives already existed in most Western European countries by the 18th century. The Weaver’s Society in Fenwick, Scotland (often referred to as “penny capitalists”) began to purchase supplies as a group in 1769. 14 The precursors to mutuals and unions were guilds, the associations of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen that date back to Medieval times.
Guilds had binding rules for production and ocr 21st century coursework help, business practices. Although guilds were created partially in an attempt to establish local trade monopolies, they incorporated socialist practices: member control, equitable treatment of about student responsibility all members, and financial support of members who were ill or faced family crises. 6 “Often men wish to century, escape the essay about responsibility realities of life, and when they do, they dream of Utopias. ” 15 The first cooperative movement, that is, the establishment of a coherent argument for antithesis poisonwood bible the cooperative form of organization, gained momentum in the early 19th century with the writings and advocacy efforts of Robert Robert Owen (1771- Owen and William King in 858):“The Father England and Charles Fourier in of Cooperation. ” France. Robert Owen and Charles Fourier were both well-known Utopian Socialists; not only did they envision ideal societies, they tried to create them in Europe and the United States. Essay Student? 16 Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a prominent industrialist who began to advocate the establishment of a new type of community to alleviate the poverty and suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution. Charles Fourier (1772-1837) was a bourgeois, famous French social philosopher whose plans for self-reliant communities were motivated by the French Revolution and his view hat the working class was being dehumanized and repressed.
They both envisioned rural villages composed of farms and small-scale industry, all operated cooperatively by the citizens who would also live together communally. Owen originally conceived of these communities as a solution for unemployment, but later believed (like Fourier) that they were a better alternative to private capitalism and competition, providing self-employment opportunities and other conditions that would provide universal happiness. Fourier called his planned communal cities “phalanxes. ” COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Fourier never found philanthropists willing to fund he creation of a phalanx. After his death, several were attempted in France and more than thirty organized in research papers drinking the United States. 18 The most notable in the United States were Brook Farm, near Cambridge, Massachusetts (1842-1846), and about student, one in Fond du Lac County (now the city of Ripon), Wisconsin (1845-1850). The phalanxes suffered from essay employee a conflict between treating everyone equally and rewarding those who provided more capital and labor. The phalanx model, however, influenced the successful kibbutzim in Israel (discussed later). Owen was a visionary idealist, not a realistic cooperative developer. He was not at all interested, therefore, in responsibility helping the essay early consumer cooperatives in England:“Joint stock retailing is not the Social System which we contemplate…and will not form any part of the arrangements in the New Moral World. ”19 In 1839 he did not even bother to respond to an urgent request by Charles Howarth to visit Rochdale, England to discuss organizational plans for essay student responsibility a new retail cooperative. Owen’s attack upon body individualism, the family, competition, private property, the market economy, and organized religion, alienated many people from cooperation and provoked condemnation of cooperatives from about student responsibility various religious groups.
Even so, Owen is often called the “father of body essay cooperation. ” Despite his failures, Owen continued preaching that cooperative production and living were the best medicines for the ills of society. His advocacy stimulated the creation of cooperative societies, labor exchanges (where handicrafts were traded based on the amount of labor involved in their making), and trade unions. Although most of the organizations he started lasted only a short time, PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN they provided the about groundwork for another generation of cooperative development in Europe and North America. William King— A cooperative developer and pragmatist Dr. Papers? William King (1786-1865), another social reformer in England, was in many respects more responsible than Robert Owen for spreading the cooperative idea and for the actual organization of cooperatives. Although he accepted much of Owen’s social philosophy, he disagreed on how to reach those goals.
King was more realistic about cooperatives, advocating and inspiring the development of consumer cooperatives across England. As a physician, King became interested in improving the about student responsibility welfare of the working people of Brighton, England. He was involved in organizing numerous ocial and educational institutions, including an infants’ school, a mechanics’ institute, and century coursework help, a library. Between 1828 and essay about responsibility, 1830, King published (at his own expense) a small magazine called “The Cooperator” that was widely distributed throughout England. Its 28 issues were a source of inspiration, information, and antithesis in the, instruction on cooperation in essay student responsibility theory as well as in practice.
The magazine advocated a more realistic type of cooperation within reach of the working class. King believed that cooperatives should start small with the original capital supplied by members, a significant deviation from Owen and Fourier’s arge-scale operations funded by wealthy investors. King did not necessarily object to Owen’s self-sustaining cooperative communities, as long as they were funded with the members’ own capital and were restricted to Christians. King was a religious fundamentalist who believed that biblical scripture should guide the ethics and operations of cooperatives. He also taught that cooperatives should not pay patronage refunds, but instead reinvest all net profits to body, increase the essay about responsibility scope of their activities and to employ as many members as possible. King also proposed the following guidelines for consumer cooperatives: THE 1ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Owen and Fourier were not abstract thinkers; they laid out very specific details for their communities. For instance, they believed that the communities should contain 1,000-1,800 people living on a relatively small tract of land. Fourier was more explicit: the thesis in business area should be three square miles. 17 Wealthy supporters of Owen’s ideas were willing to finance the creation of such communities.
Four were eventually created: New Harmony, Indiana (USA); Orbiston, Scotland; Ralahine, Ireland; and Queenswood, England. All ultimately failed. Essay About Student Responsibility? 2 ? 7 1) members should pay cash for all merchandise purchased at the cooperative; (2) the co-op should adopt democratic principles of governance; and (3) it should publicize the cooperative movement. In addition to the advocacy of systems Owen and King, the cooperative movement in England was supported by a number of short-lived cooperative journals, which were circulated between 1825 and 1830. Cooperative congresses also advocated and promoted cooperation; the first took place in 1830 in Manchester, the second in 1831 in Birmingham, and essay about responsibility, the third in 1832 in London. Owen’s influence and rhetoric were exhibited in these and later congresses. For instance, the Third Congress stated that “the grand ultimate object of employee rights workplace all cooperative societies is community on land. ” What began with a few cooperative societies in 1826 quickly grew to about 300 consumer cooperatives by essay, 1830, many patterned after King’s Brighton Cooperative Trading Association. King’s ideas may have also influenced early American cooperatives. A treasurer of a cooperative in Brighton, England, William Bryan, helped organize a consumer cooperative in New York City in 1830. King was compelled to discontinue his active role in the cooperative movement in the late 1830s for wo reasons: his medical practice was suffering and body systems essay, poor management and internal discontent plagued individual co-op stores.
By 1840, the cooperative movement in England was basically at essay responsibility a standstill and james jean why the sky is essay, King’s ideas were forgotten, ignored in the cooperative literature for several decades. The Rochdale Pioneers In the first wave of consumer cooperatives, a shortlived society was created in Rochdale, England in 1833. James Smithies, one of the original organizers, was inspired by essay, King’s cooperative magazine and shared it with his co-founders. Their ultimate cooperative goals, however, echoed Owen’s teachings. Although their first co-op effort failed after only two years, a core group of james jean why the blue essay 28 continued to essay about, work actively for social reform and thesis in business, eventually created the prototype cooperative model for a modest shop on Toad Lane in 1844. The so-called Rochdale Pioneers were ambitious and had lofty goals for their co-op: (1) to sell provisions at the store; (2) to purchase homes for their members; (3) to essay about, manufacture goods their members needed; and (4) to provide employment for their members who were either out of work or poorly paid. In sum, they wanted to “establish a self-supporting home colony of united interests” nd to “arrange the powers of james why the sky is essay production, distribution, education, and government” in the interests of its members. In addition, they hoped to open a “temperance hotel” in one of the cooperative houses to promote sobriety. About Student? The foundation for the Rochdale cooperative was built upon the intelligent combination of body essay various ideas that had been tried by previous cooperatives. Student? The Pioneers learned from the co-op failures of the past. For example, the business practices they adopted for their small store, later called the Rochdale Principles (sidebar), were novel primarily in their combination; many had been borrowed rom other cooperatives.
The original Rochdale Cooperative shop on Toad Lane. Antithesis Bible? It is now preserved as a museum. 8 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The Industrial and Provident Societies Act, authorized in England in 1852, was a major development in the cooperative movement. Prior to the enactment of essay student this law, the essay Friendly Societies Acts of 1834 and 1846 regulated the registration of cooperatives, even though these acts were designed for mutual-aid groups and not for businesses engaged in trade. Therefore, the about student consumer cooperatives did not have the james jean sky is proper legal protection essential for their business operations. The acts further prevented them from selling to people other than their members. Essay Student? 1. Voting is by members on in the poisonwood, a democratic (one-member, one-vote) basis. Student? 2. Membership is research on underage open. 3. About Responsibility? Equity is research on underage drinking provided by members. 4. About Student Responsibility? Equity ownership share of individual members is limited.
5. Net income is distributed to members as patronage refunds on a cost basis. 6. Dividends on equity capital are limited. 7. Exchange of goods and services at market prices. Essay Rights Workplace? 8. Duty to educate. Essay? 9. Cash trading only. 10. No unusual risk assumption. 11. Political and in business, religious neutrality.
12. Equality in membership (no discrimination y gender). Adapted from student David Barton,“Principles,” in David Cobia (ed. ), Cooperatives in essay Agriculture. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989. Some of the Rochdale Principles, such as democratic control (one-member, one-vote) and limited dividends on equity capital, are still followed by most cooperatives around the world. Other principles, such as cash trading, are clearly outdated in most countries where credit cards and responsibility, (in agricultural co-ops) seasonal loans are the norm. As a set of guiding principles, they are not necessarily appropriate for all types of cooperatives in all locations. They are after all a product of a historical period and economy and were meant to govern a small retail store (see chapter 4 for further discussion of cooperative principles).
The phenomenal success of the Rochdale cooperative, which is thesis in business still in operation today, was just the boost that the cooperative movement in England needed. Essay About Student Responsibility? Rochdale became the cooperative beacon for others to thesis in business, follow. It provided the organizational pattern that became the prototype for other cooperatives and spurred on the cooperative movement in Europe and North America. About Student? PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The Industrial and Provident Societies Act rovided both important legal protections for the cooperatives while also imposing some operating restrictions. It protected the property of the body systems societies, gave binding legal authority for their rules, safeguarded the savings of their investors, allowed them to sell to non-members, and provided legal status so that an association could sue fraudulent officials.
It allowed cooperatives to essay about, pay patronage refunds on purchases but limited dividends on shares of stock to five percent. Thesis In Business? Although members still faced unlimited liability for cooperative debts, share limits of ? 100 per member were enforced. The passage of the Industrial and Provident Societies Act of 1862 loosened some of the restrictions and provided limited liability for members, meaning they would be liable only for student co-op debts less than or equal to thesis, the value of their stock. Share limits were increased to ? 200 per member and cooperatives were permitted to invest in other cooperatives. As a result of these changes, the organization of the North of England Co-operative Society became possible. Established in 1863 to create cost savings for members by purchasing a variety of goods in bulk, today the Co-operative Group comprises a family of businesses employed n a wide range of activities (food, finance, farms, funerals, etc. ). It is a unique consumer-owned business that is the largest of its kind in the world.
THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world The first cooperative law Rochdale cooperative principles 2 ? 9 The beginnings of cooperative credit During the 1840s, later called “the Hungry Forties,” famine and extreme hardship spread throughout Europe. A blight ruined potato crops in many European countries, although Ireland was the most severely hit, during 1845-47. The shortage of potatoes drove up other food prices. Low fishing yields further exacerbated the food shortage, which caused millions of deaths and led to severe economic depression, high unemployment, and political unrest in the region. About Responsibility? The Communist Manifesto was published in 1848.
During this same year, F. W. Papers On Underage? Raiffeisen, a mayor of a group of about student responsibility villages in Northern Germany, created a cooperative society to alleviate some of the suffering in his community. Research? The cooperative gave potatoes and bread to the poor. He soon realized, however, that charity alone could not solve the problems of about responsibility poor farmers; they needed to become self-sufficient and earn more money. Raiffeisen hen started to organize loan societies, which embraced various cooperative features. Although Raiffeisen continued to advocate self-help, his first societies were mainly efforts to transfer money from the rich to papers, the poor. In 1862, he helped the rural farmers of the little town of Anhausen organize a truly cooperative loan society.
Early agricultural marketing and farm supply cooperatives in Europe Denmark is generally regarded as the most outstanding example of early and successful cooperative farm marketing and farm supply organizations. 20 The first cooperative creamery in Denmark was established in 1875 at Kaslunde. The early ooperative creameries incorporated some significant improvements in essay about the butter-making process, including a standardized grading system. The high quality butter was marketed under a government brand to reflect their supervision of the grading. Coursework? The first cooperative creameries were very successful. Essay Student Responsibility? News of their success and science coursework, popularity spread to other rural areas of Denmark; many others were soon organized throughout the country.
These developments took place without government assistance or subsidies. The early and essay about student, striking success of cooperatives in Denmark can be primarily attributed to thesis, the role of the Folk High School. An institution unique to the country, this school educated young adults in essay about rural areas. The schools were inspired by the philosopher and clergyman, Bishop Nikolai (N. S. F. ) Grundtvig (1783-1873), and popularized by Kristen Meanwhile, Herman Schulze had created a somewhat similar credit institution among artisans Kold, an educator. Grundtvig established the thesis first in Eilenburg in about 1850. He further refined this model Folk High School in 1844; the one created by Kold in systems 1851, however, was more successful and widely to essay student, fit the credit needs of artisans and employee privacy workplace, other smallscale industries and developed other credit organi- replicated.
The mission of the schools was to enlighten Danish citizens (beyond what they were zations. Raiffeisen may have been familiar with learning in primary schools) so they could particithese organizations and responsibility, used them to inform his pate in the governance of the kingdom. They were own co-op development efforts. Both the not meant to be vocational or cooperative training Raiffeisen and Schulze cooperative bank models schools but rather designed to expose students to rapidly spread across Europe. Features of both new ideas and experiences. Today, we would call models were used to form credit unions in in business North them liberal arts schools. Numerous such schools America. Incidentally, the Credit Union National still thrive in Denmark. Although supported finanAssociation’s headquarters in Madison, Wisconsin was called “Raiffeisen House” for essay a number of thesis years. Essay? cially by the state, they are free to set their own curricula and are required to be nonvocational and antithesis poisonwood, without examinations. 10 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Cooperatives around the student world The cooperative movement gradually spread around the in business world in the 19th century (table 2. Essay About Student? 1).
Another notable cooperative advocate is Sir Horace Plunkett (1854-1932), an Irishman (who spent 10 years as a cattle rancher in the United. States in the 1800s) famous for advocating the benefits of agricultural cooperatives in Ireland and beyond. 21 He was instrumental in essay workplace creating an international cooperative movement and promoting the cooperative principle of political neutrality. The Irish Cooperative Organization Society (formerly the essay Irish Agricultural Organization Society), originally founded by Plunkett in antithesis bible 1894, is located in The Plunkett House in Dublin. Today, cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to the industrial countries of Europe and North America. Northern Europe, where the cooperative movement took hold very early, still contains a strong cooperative presence, especially in agriculture. Many of the cooperatives in these countries have long histories and student responsibility, are extremely successful. Antithesis Bible? However, as is the case in the United States (see chapter 3), economic pressures have been met with cooperative mergers and consolidations. As a result, cooperative numbers in these countries appear quite low (tables 2. 2 and 2. 3).
Cooperative numbers in India, even on a per capita basis, are by comparison astounding. In the about student responsibility case of India and other countries with relatively high ooperative numbers, this situation typically reflects the existence of why the blue numerous, local cooperatives. More cooperatives do not imply necessarily that the cooperative sector as a whole is essay student responsibility stronger or more competitive, however. The spread of the cooperative business model from 18th century England to such diverse countries as India, Korea and Uganda, points to the universal adaptability and diversity of the cooperative model. Cooperative businesses are found in nearly all countries, from the in business developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America to essay, the industrial countries of Europe and North America. PRINCIPLES PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Historical development of cooperatives throughout the world Folk High Schools created trained, rural leadership. Ocr 21st Century Coursework Help? They also established bonds of trust among those who came to student, live and study at the schools. The students developed a willingness to think together, work together, and play together—in short, to cooperate. Although not an intended outcome, the spirit of cooperation produced in these schools has been, without doubt, an important factor in the growth of Denmark’s cooperative movement. 2 ? 11 Table 2. 1. Historical cooperative statistics for selected countries Country.
First co-op First co-op law Membership (% of population) Albania 1946 NA NA Austria 1794 1873 47. 4 Belgium 1848 1873 35. 4 Czech Republic 1852 1873 13. 4 Denmark 1851 NA 34. Antithesis In The? 2 Finland 1870 1901 45. Responsibility? 8 France 1750 1887 30. 1 Germany 1845 1867 27. James Jean Why The Sky Is Essay? 9 Greece 1780 1914 9. 9 Iceland 1844 1937 20. 0 Ireland 1859 1893 59. 5 Italy 1806 1886 13.
3 Lithuania 1869 1917 6. 8 Luxembourg 1808 1884 4. 8 Netherlands 1860 1855 41. 1 Norway 1851 1935 36. 4 Poland 1816 1920 NA Portugal 1871 1867 21. 9 Romania 1852 1903 28. 5 Russia 1825 1907 9. 5 Spain 1838 1885 11. About Student? 1 Sweden 1850 1895 53.
7 Switzerland 1816 1881 50. 1 Turkey 1863 867 12. 9 United Kingdom 1750 1852 16. 6 United States 1752 1865 56. 7 Yugoslavia 1870 1925 6. 5 NA = not available Source: Adapted from Shaffer, J. (1999). Historical dictionary of the cooperative movement. London: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (pp. 437-39).
12 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER Region Number of countries Organizations Individual members Societies Africa 12 19 27,214 9,561,443 Americas 18 61 43,945 182,486,437 Asia 28 64 480,648 414,383,079 Europe 35 88 197,293 118,473,862 Total 93 232 749,100 724,904,821 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. org/statistics. html (July 1,1998). Table 2. 3. Agriculture cooperative statistics from select countries Number of co-ops Country Membership (millions) Brazil 4,744 3. 74 Canada 7,880 14. Science Help? 52 Columbia 1,936 4. 82 Denmark 1,446 1. 39 Egypt 6,992 4. 28 46 1. 07 23,573 17. 49 Finland France Germany 9,112 21. 64 India 446,784 182. 92 Israel 256 0. 03 Japan 3,860 42. 84 NA 0. 63 Morocco 9,635 0. 68 Norway 4,259 1. 59 Repub. Korea 7,669 17. 07 15,106 Historical development of about student responsibility cooperatives throughout the world Table 2. 2. Cooperatives and membership by international region 2 ? 4. 78 Mexico Sweden Switzerland Uganda United Kingdom United States Zambia 16 1. Thesis In Business? 51 3,131 0. 4 42 9. 04 27,076 156.
19 2,174 0. 57 Source: International Co-operative Alliance, www. coop. Essay? org/statistics. In Business? html (April 26, 2002). PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN THE 21ST CENTURY 13 14 COOPERATIVES: CHAPTER The driving forces behind cooperative development in the United States include the following five interrelated dynamics: 1. Market failure (monopoly power, excess supply, missing markets, etc. Essay Student Responsibility? ). 2. Body Essay? Economic crises (depressions and recessions). 3. New technology. 4. Farm organizations and essay about, cooperative advocates. 5. Favorable public policy (presidential interest, legislative initiatives at jean why the essay both state and federal evels, and judicial interpretation). The relative importance of these forces at different periods will become apparent as we trace the path of cooperative development. Since some of the most significant contributions Americans have made to the cooperative model and movement have been in the agricultural sector, farm cooperatives will dominate this discussion. About Student? PRINCIPLES #038; PRACTICES IN The first American cooperatives The first recognized cooperative business in the United States (a mutual insurance company) was founded in 1752, almost a quarter-century before the in business birth of the country (America achieved independence in essay about 1776). Benjamin Franklin, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, worked with other members of fire fighting associations to systems essay, create the first successful fire insurance company in student responsibility the colonies: The Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of body systems essay Houses from Loss by Fire.
24 Franklin had already formed the Union Fire Company in 1736, which became the model for volunteer fire fighting companies. Franklin had witnessed the success and importance of essay mutual societies when he was living in England. The Philadelphia Contributionship was based on a similar London association created in ocr 21st 1696. About Student? 25 Although European models and james jean why the sky is blue, European immigrant cultures remained influential, it was in agriculture that co-ops began to essay student, take root in new and research papers on underage, distinctive North American forms. ” 26 Cooperative history, trends, Cooperative history, trends, and laws in the United States and about responsibility, laws in the United States C ooperatives are neither indigenous to the United States, nor are they an American invention. In Business? As Fairbairn reminds us,“The idea of the co-op was both imported by the colonists from Europe and also independently developed and adapted by essay student, settlers of European origin under North American conditions. ”22 Pilgrims coming to he new world on the Mayflower in 1620 signed the ocr 21st science coursework Mayflower Compact, which described the operations of an organization, or constitution, with cooperative characteristics. Once they arrived, the early settlers worked together collectively to clear the land, build homes and communities, start farming, and provide protection for their families. 23 The overview of cooperative development in the United States provided here supports the idea that cooperatives in essay student responsibility the United States are both an artifact of early settlers’ European heritage and a collective response to harsh living conditions in rural areas. ? American farmers first attempted to organize in 1785 with the establishment of the ocr 21st century science Philadelphia Society for Promotion of Agriculture.
The first formal farmer cooperatives were created in 1810: a dairy cooperative in essay student Goshen, Connecticut, and a cheese manufacturing cooperative in South Trenton, New Jersey. On the heels of on underage drinking these organizations, other cooperatives involving different commodities were formed in many parts of the country (table 3. 1). There was no identified coordinated leadership and most cooperatives restricted their operations to their local community. Most of he early agricultural cooperatives were ultimately unsuccessful. THE 21ST CENTURY 15 Table 3. 1. Selected early cooperatives and mutuals in the United States Year Cooperative 1752 Philadelphia Contributionship for the Insurance of Houses from Loss by Fire (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 1810 Dairy cooperative (Goshen, Conneticut) and cheese cooperative (South Trenton, New Jersey) 1820 Hog marketing, slaughtering, and packing cooperative (Granville, Ohio) 1853 Irrigation cooperative (Tulare County, California) 1857 Grain elevator (Madison, Wisconsin) 1862 Tobacco marketing cooperative (Connecticut) 1863. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]
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